Monday, November 22, 2010

2010 Pakistan floods

2010 Pakistan floods
Pakistan 2010 Floods.jpg
A NASA satellite image showing the Indus River at the time of floods
Duration:26 July 2010-Present
Damages:$43 billion (estimated)
Areas affected:Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab,Sindh, Balochistan and Gilgit-Baltistan
The 2010 Pakistan floods began in July 2010 following heavy monsoon rains in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan regions of Pakistan and affected the Indus River basin. At one point, approximately one-fifth of Pakistan's total land area was underwater. According to Pakistani government data the floods directly affected about 20 million people, mostly by destruction of property, livelihood and infrastructure, with a death toll of close to 2,000. The number of individuals affected by the flooding exceeds the combined total of individuals affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2005 Kashmir earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon had initially asked for $460 million for emergency relief, noting that the flood was the worst disaster he had ever seen. 50% of the relief funds requested had been received as of 15 August 2010. The U.N. had been concerned that aid was not arriving fast enough, while the World Health Organization reported that ten million people were forced to drink unsafe water. The Pakistani economy has been harmed by extensive damage to infrastructure and crops.Structural damages have been estimated to exceed 4 billion USD, and wheat crop damages have been estimated to be over 500 million USD. Officials have estimated the total economic impact to be as much as 43 billion USD.


US Army helicopter flies over a flood-affected area.
Current flooding is blamed on unprecedented monsoon rain. The rainfall anomaly map published by NASA shows unusually intense monsoon rains attributed to La Niña. On 21 June, the Pakistan Meteorological Department cautioned that urban and flash flooding could occur from July to September in the north parts of the country.The same department recorded above-average rainfall in the months of July and August 2010, and monitored the flood wave progression. Some of the discharge levels recorded are comparable to those seen during the floods of 1988, 1995, and 1997.
An article in the New Scientist attributed the cause of the exceptional rainfall to "freezing" of the jet stream, a phenomenon that reportedly also caused unprecedented heat waves and wildfires in Russia as well as the 2007 United Kingdom floods.
In response to previous floods of the Indus River in 1973 and 1976, Pakistan created the Federal Flood Commission (FFC) in 1977. The FFC operates under Pakistan's Ministry of Water and Power. It is charged with executing flood control projects and protecting lives and property of Pakistanis from the impact of floods. Since its inception the FFC has received Rs 87.8 billion (about 900 million USD). FFC documents show numerous projects were initiated, funded and completed, however reports indicate little work has been actually been done due to ineffective leadership and corruption.

Flooding and impact

Satellite images of the upper Indus River valley comparing water-levels on 1 August 2009 (top) and 31 July 2010 (bottom)
Monsoon rains were forecasted to continue into early August and were described as the worst in this area in the last 80 years. The Pakistan Meteorological Department reported that over 200 mm (7.88 inches) of rain fell over a 24-hour period in a number of places in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab and more should be expected. A record-breaking 274 mm (10.7 inches) of rain fell in Peshawar during 24 hours, previously 187 mm (7.36 inches) of rain was recorded in April 2009. So far 500,000 or more people have been displaced from their homes. On 30 July, Manuel Bessler, head of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, stated that 36 districts were involved, and 950,000 people were affected, although within a day, reports increased that number to as high as a million, and by mid-August to nearly 20 million affected. By mid-August, according to the governmental Federal Flood Commission (FFC), the floods had caused the deaths of at least 1,540 people, while 2,088 people had received injuries, 557,226 houses had been destroyed, and over 6 million people had been displaced. One month later, the data had been updated to reveal 1,781 deaths, 2,966 people with injuries, and more than 1.89 million homes destroyed.
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provincial minister of information, Mian Iftikhar Hussain, said "the infrastructure of this province was already destroyed by terrorism. Whatever was left was finished off by these floods."He also called the floods "the worst calamity in our history." Four million Pakistanis were left with food shortages.
The Karakoram Highway, which connects Pakistan with China, was closed after a bridge was destroyed. The ongoing devastating floods in Pakistan will have a severe impact on an already vulnerable population, says the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). In addition to all the other damages the floods have caused, floodwater have destroyed much of the health care infrastructure in the worst-affected areas, leaving inhabitants especially vulnerable to water-borne disease. In Sindh, the Indus River burst its banks near Sukkur on 8 August, submerging the village of Mor Khan Jatoi. There is also an absence of law and order, mainly in Sindh. Looters have been taking advantage of the floods by ransacking abandoned homes using boats.

Affected areas as of August 26, 2010
In early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River from severely-affected northern regions toward western Punjab, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland were destroyed, and the southern province of Sindh. The affected crops included cotton, sugarcane, rice, pulses, tobacco and animal fodder. Floodwaters and rain destroyed 700,000 acres (3,000 km2) of cotton, 200,000 acres (800 km2) acres each of rice and cane, 500,000 tonnes of wheat and 300,000 acres (1,000 km2) of animal fodder. According to the Pakistan Cotton Ginners Association, the floods destroyed 2 million bales of cotton, which led to an increase in futures of the commodity in international market.170,000 citizens (or 70% of the population) of the historic Sindh town of Thatta fled advancing flood waters on 27 August 2010.
By mid-September the floods generally had began to recede, although in some areas, such as Sindh, new floods were reported; the majority of the displaced persons had not been able to return home.

Heavy rainfalls recorded during the wet spell of July 2010
Heavy rainfalls of more than 200 millimetres (7.9 in) recorded during the four day wet spell of July 27 to July 30, 2010 in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Punjab based on data from the Pakistan Meteorological Department.
City Rainfall (mm) Rainfall (in) Province Notes
Risalpur *415 16.3 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 
Islamabad 394 15.5 Islamabad Capital Territory 
Murree 373 14.6 Punjab 
Cherat *372 14.6 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 
Garhi Dopatta 346 13.6 Azad Kashmir
Saidu Sharif *338 13.3 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 
Peshawar *333 13.1 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 
Kamra 308 12.1 Punjab 
Rawalakot 297 11.7 Azad Kashmir 
Muzaffarabad 292 11.5 Azad Kashmir 
Lahore 288 11.3 Punjab 
Mianwali *271 10.6 Punjab 
Jhelum 269 10.6 Punjab 
Lower Dir 263 10.3 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 
Kohat *262 10.3 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 
Balakot 256 10.0 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 
Sialkot 255 10.0 Punjab 
Pattan 242 9.5 Azad Kashmir 
DIR 231 9.10 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 
Gujranwala 222 8.7 Punjab 
Dera Ismail Khan 220 8.6 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 
Rawalpindi 219 8.6 Punjab 
* Indicates new record.

The power infrastructure of Pakistan also took a severe blow from the floods, which damaged 10,000 transmission lines and transformers, feeders and power houses in different flood-hit areas. Flood water inundated Jinnah Hydro power and 150 power houses in Gilgit. The damage caused a power shortfall of 3.135 gigawatt.
Aid agencies have warned that outbreaks of diseases, such as gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and skin diseases due to lack of clean drinking water and sanitation can pose a serious new risk to flood victims. On 14 August, the first documented case of cholera emerged in the town of Mingora, striking fear into millions of stranded flood victims, who are already suffering from gastroenteritis and diarrhea. Pakistan has also faced a malaria outbreak.
It has been reported by the International Red Cross that a large number of unexploded ordinance, such as mines and artillery shells, have been flushed down stream by the floods from areas in Kashmir and Waziristan and scattered in low lying areas, posing a future risk to returning inhabitants. The United Nations estimated that 800,000 people have been cut off by floods in Pakistan and are only reachable by air. It also stated that at least 40 more helicopters are needed to ferry lifesaving aid to increasingly desperate people. Many of those cut off are in the mountainous northwest, where roads and bridges have been swept away.
By order of President Asif Ali Zardari, there were no official celebrations of Pakistan's 63rd Independence Day on 14 August, due to the calamity the country faces.

Potential long term effects

Floods have submerged 17 million acres (69,000 km2) of Pakistan's most fertile crop land, have killed 200,000 herd of livestock and have washed away massive amounts of grain. A major concern is that farmers will be unable to meet the fall deadline for planting new seeds in 2010, which implies a massive loss of food production in 2011, and potential long term food shortages.The agricultural damages are more than 2.9 billion dollars, according to recent estimates, and include over 700,000 acres (2,800 km2) of lost cotton crops, 200,000 acres (810 km2) of sugar cane and 200,000 acres (810 km2) of rice, in addition to the loss of over 500,000 tonnes of stocked wheat, 300,000 acres (1,200 km2) of animal fodder and the stored grain losses.
Agricultural crops such as cotton, rice, and sugarcane and to some extent mangoes were badly affected in Punjab, according to a Harvest Tradings-Pakistan spokesman. He called for the international community to fully participate in the rehabilitation process, as well as for the revival of agricultural crops in order to get better GDP growth in the future.
In affected Multan Division in South Punjab, some people were seen to be engaging in profit-taking in this disaster, raising their prices up to Rs 130/kg. Some have called for Zarai Taraqiati Bank Limited to write off all agricultural loans in the affected areas in Punjab, Sindh and Khyber Pukhtunkhwa especially for small farmers.
On 24 September World Food Programme announced that about 70% of Pakistan's population do not have adequate access to proper nutrition. Most of this population with less than adequate nutrition lives in rural areas of the country.

Floods have damaged an estimated 2,433 miles of highway and 3,508 miles (5,646 km) of railway. Cost estimates for highway damages are approximately 158 million USD, and railway damages are 131 million USD. Any unique or particularly large infrastructure damages will increase these estimates. Public building damages are estimated at 1 billion USD. Aid donors have presented an estimate that 5,000 schools have been destroyed.

Taliban insurgency
It was reported that the flood would divert Pakistani military forces from fighting the Pakistani Taliban insurgents (TTP) in the northwest as they would be needed to help in the relief effort giving Taliban fighters a reprieve to regroup. On the other hand, the argument was made that by helping flood victims, the US had an opportunity to improve its image.
The Pakistani Taliban also engaged in relief efforts making inroads where the government was absent or seen as corrupt. As the flood may have dislodged many property markers, it is feared that governmental delay and corruption will give an advantage to the Taliban to settle these disputes swiftly. In August a Taliban spokesperson asked the Pakistani government to reject Western help from "Christians and Jews" and claimed that the Taliban could raise $20 million to replace that aid.
According to a US official the TTP had issued a threat saying that it would launch attacks against foreigners participating in flood relief operations. In response, the United Nations said it was reviewing security arrangements for its workers. The World Health Organization stated that work in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province was already suffering because of the security concerns. However, an unverified Taliban spokesperson based in Orakzai told The Express Tribune: “We have not issued any such threat; and we don’t have any plans to attack relief workers."Nevertheless three American Christians were reported to have been killed by the Taliban on August 25 in the Swat Valley.

Political effects
Floods have been theorized to have future political consequences mostly due to public perception of governance inefficacies and it has been said that if the situation is not adequately addressed specially with fight against terrorism going on in Pakistan, it might lead to future political unrest. These political effects of the floods have been compared with that of 1970 Bhola cyclone.

Economic effects
On 7 September 2010, the International Labour Organization reported that more than 5.3 million jobs have been lost due to the floods, emphasizing that "productive and labor intensive job creation programmes are urgently needed to lift millions of people out of poverty that has been aggravated by flood damage".The GDP growth rate of 4% prior to the floods may turn negative with the estimates ranging from -2% to -5% of GDP. Though the GDP growth may improve in 2011 and beyond, it will be several years before it can return to the 4% level of 2009. The loss of crops will hit the textile manufacturing which is the largest export sector of Pakistan. Furthermore, the loss of over 10 million heads of livestock's along with the loss of other crops will bring down the total agricultural production by more than 15%. Toyota and Unilever Pakistan have said that the floods may sap growth, necessitating production cuts as people struggle to cope with the destruction. Parvez Ghias the chief executive of Pakistan's largest motor automaker Toyota described the economy's state as "fragile". Nationwide car sales are predicted to fall as much as 25%, forcing automakers to reduce production in October 2010 from the pre-flood level of 200 cars per day. The milk supplies have also fallen by 15%, which will cause the retail price of milk to increase by Pk Rs 4 (5 US cents) per liter. Some investors have started to buy the devalued stock in the hope that they will rise again.

Relief efforts

A bridge damaged by the flooding
By the end of July 2010, Pakistan had appealed to international donors for help in responding to the disaster, having provided twenty-one helicopters and 150 boats to assist affected people, according to its National Disaster Management Authority. At that time the US embassy in Pakistan had provided seven helicopters. The United Nations launched its relief efforts and appealed for $460 million to provide immediate help, including food, shelter and clean water. On August 14, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon visited Pakistan to oversee and discuss the relief efforts. A Pakistani army spokesman said that troops had been deployed in all affected areas and had rescued thousands of people.Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani visited the province and directed the Pakistan Navy to help evacuate the flood victims. By early August, more than 352,291 people have been rescued.
By the end of August, the Relief Web Financial Tracking service indicated that worldwide donations for humanitarian assistance had come to $687 million, with a further $324 million promised in uncommitted pledges. At that time, the Secretary-General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) stated that Muslim countries, organizations and individuals had pledged close to $1 billion to assist in Pakistan’s flood emergency, a statement placed in doubt by findings from the UN Financial Tracking Service, which indicated that only three of the OIC's 56 member states - Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and Kuwait - had pledged more than single digit millions. Pakistan’s Prime Minister Yusuf Raza Gilani stated that by the end of August, Saudi Arabia's support exceeded that of the US, yet both UN data and data from Pakistan's Disaster Management Authority failed to support this claim.
With need for substantial support to repair infrastructure, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton suggested that the Pakistani government enlarge its tax base by asking the wealthy citizens of Pakistan to contribute more for their country; by that time both the US and the EU each had contributed about $450 million for the relief effort.
According to UNOCHA, by November 2010, a total of close to $1,792 million had been committed in humanitarian support, the largest amount by the US (30.7%), followed by private individuals and organizations (17.5%) and Saudi Arabia (13.5%).
[edit]Response by national governments
Afghanistan finance minister Omar Zakhilwal handed a cheque worth $1 million (45 Million Afghanis) to Pakistani ambassador Mohammad Sadiq at the end of a press conference in Afghan capital Kabul.
Argentina has sent drinkable water.
Australia has announced that it will double its aid program to Pakistan to $66.5 million in official development assistance in 2010 - 2011, as well as committing two C17 Globemaster aircraft to deliver emergency supplies and to assist relief efforts and deploying a medical task force consisting of up to 180 personnel and more than 33 tonnes of equipment.
Austria donated 5.6 million euros to Pakistan.
Azerbaijan gave US$2 million financial assistance to help the victims and eliminate the aftermath of the disaster. The Azerbaijani embassy in Pakistan said the Azerbaijani president, Ilham Aliyev ordered to send two Il-76 planes with a humanitarian assistance on board to Pakistan. One of the planes delivered 40 tonnes of humanitarian cargo to Pakistan. Also the staff of Azerbaijan embassy in Pakistan also transferred its two-days’ salary worth around $2,000 to relief fund.
Bahrain donated $2.6 million to Pakistan.
Bangladesh has pledged $2 million for relief and will also dispatch a medical team along with material assistance including tents, blankets, water purification tablets, mineral waters, life saving drugs and vaccines, oral saline, hygiene kit, biscuits and packed dry food.
Belarus donated blankets, tents, canned meat, water, and medicines, all worth around $200,000.
Belgium donated 150,000 Euro for the victims.
Brazil donated US$ 0.7 million through World Food Programme or life-saving assistance to the affected.
Canada announced that it would donate $2 million worth of emergency aid. $750,000 are expected to be donated to the ICRC for distribution of shelter-materials and water, sanitation and health-services, while the remainder goes to the WFP to provide much-needed food-assistance. On 14 August the Canadian government announced an additional $32 million Dollar in aid. The Canadian government announced on August 22 that it will match, dollar-for-dollar, citizen donations made to registered charities between August 2 and September 12, later extended to October 3, 2010. On 14 September, an additional $7.5 million in relief aid was announced by the Canadian government.
China has so far provided 320 million yuan (47.1 million USD) worth of humanitarian supplies to Pakistan in four batches with $200 million USD more aid promised by Premier Wen Jiabao. which will total 1.86 billion yuan (274 million USD). "As Pakistan's neighbor and all-weather friend, China empathizes with Pakistan on the heavy casualties and property loss caused by the natural disasters," said Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu. It initially announced that it would provide emergency aid worth 10 million yuan (approx. US$ 1.48 million) to help the flood-victims. The People's Liberation Army donated another 10 million yuan to Pakistan. The Chinese Red Cross has also given US $50,000 in cash to Pakistan.The Chinese ambassador to Pakistan traveled to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and expressed his condolences to those affected by the tragedy. On 13 August, China announced another emergency humanitarian aid worth 50 million yuan (US$7.35 million) bringing the total official Chinese relief aid then to more than 70 million yuan(approx. US$ 10.3 million) to the flood-affected Pakistani people. A Chinese search and rescue team arrived in the southern Pakistani city of Thatta, Sindh Province, where heavy floods swept away hundreds of villages. The Chinese rescue team, consisting of more than 60 members, set up tents and field hospitals to provide medical services to flood victims. The Red Cross Society of China and some of China's local governments, including Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Sichuan Province, had also offered cash and material assistance to Pakistan. China announced another aid package of 200 million RMB on September 6, saying it was sincere, timely and unconditional and that China would continue to offer Pakistan support and help for the reconstruction. Chinese ambassador in Pakistan Lui Jian while meeting with Pakistan Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani said that Chinese total contribution has reached 50 million dollars with another batch of $200 million dollars promised by Chinas premier Wen Jiabao on September 23 at the UN summit in NY. On September 20 China has dispatched 4 of its military helicopters to aid in the search and rescue to Pakistan which is the first time China has ever dispatched military helicopters overseas to perform such duties, the helicopters are also carrying flood relief aid.
The Czech military have sent 24 flights with humanitarian aid.
Denmark has donated 63 million DKK (11M USD) in relief efforts and another 130 million DKK (22M USD) in further development aid.
Egypt donated medicine, medical supplies and foodstuffs.
Estonia donated 64,000 euros.
The European Union released €10 million to help Pakistan's flood victims on 11 August, as part of emergency aid to flood-stricken country. By 18 August, the EU had committed to spending €70 million (90 million dollars) on aid for victims of the floods.
Finland government donated €1.2 million for humanitarian assistance to the flood victims. €600,000 were channeled through the World Health Organization, €400,000 through the UNHCR and €200,000 through Finn Church Aid.
France donated 1.05 million euros and 35 tonnes of emergency supplies, tarpaulins, tanks, blankets, jerry cans, kitchen sets, water purification tablets, 200 shelters and anti-cholera medicines.
Germany initially committed €1 million for the victims, which was further increased to €2 million on 6 August. On 12 August, Germany announced a $13 million aid package. On 13 August Germany increased its aid commitment by €10 million to now €25 million in direct help plus €43 million via contributions through international organizations with which it is associated. In addition there have been private donations to charities in the scale of €24 million up to 18 August.
Greece donated €100,000.
Hong Kong has donated HK$ 3 million to World Vision for a relief project for flood victims in Pakistan.
Iceland contributed ISK 23 million (US $190,000) to emergency aid in areas impacted by the monsoon floods in Pakistan.
Indonesia The Government of Indonesia dispatched a cargo flight carrying humanitarian assistance of US$1milliion for the flood victims. The relief assistance which arrived at the Chaklala Air base by a charted cargo flight consisted of 15 tons of emergency supplies included 4.5 tons of ready to eat meals’ packets, 3 tons of medicines, 5 tons of powdered milk for children, 4000 blankets and 4000 Sarongs.On behalf of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia the donation of the relief goods was handed over by the Ambassador of the Republic of Indonesia H.E. Mr. Ishak Latuconsina to the State Minister for Information and Broadcasting Mr. Sumsam Ali Shah Bukhari at the Chaklala Air base on August 7, 2010.
India, on 13 August, offered condolences and $5 million in financial aid. Pakistan accepted the offer on 20 August, a day after the meeting between Indian and Pakistani Prime Ministers. On 1 September 2010, India raised the aid amount to US$25 million. Nearly 400 Indian medical staff have been waiting for the Pakistan government's visa approval to help flood victims. India has also already supplied the first consignment of 25 truck-loads of potato to Pakistan.
Iran had committed over 400 tonnes of relief goods; out of which 330 tonnes had already been delivered by the Iranian transport aircrafts as of 24 August 2010. These goods included tents, floorings, clothes, canned food, bread and medical supplies. Iranian red crescent society has also been on the ground along with Pakistan Red Crescent Society as a part of its ongoing relief operation inside Pakistan to more than 100,000 flood vicitms. In addition to the Iranian government help Ayatollah Lotfollah Safi Golpaygani has announced that one third of collected Khums will be donated to Pakistan for humanitarian assistance. Iran's chamber of commerce also donated US $1 million to the flood affectees. Iran has also offered to setup field hospitals and community centers for flood victims in Pakistan. In response to UN's appeal for help at New York, Iran committed US $10 million towards the flood relief. In addition to this fund, Imam Khomeini Relief Committee was directed to collect private donations from Iranians and donate it to Pakistani government. Iranian interior minister also visited Pakistan as the head of a humanitarian mission assessing the needs of Pakistani people in order to facilitate the distribution of Iranian aid to Pakistan. During the visit the Pakistani interior minister was invited to Tehran for discussing the flood situation among other matters, and the Pakistani minister visited Iran on 22 August 2010. Iranian interior minister during a meeting with Pakistani interior minister informed the latter that Iran is the third largest donor nation in terms of delivered aid. Iran has also assured Pakistan of its continued support and aid into future. In order to better supply relief to flood victims, Iranian president Dr. Ahmadinejad would visit the flood hit areas of Pakistan. Iran has also donated 50,000 tents and has sent 500 doctors and nurses to help with ongoing international relief operation. Iran started to send an additional 1,100 tonnes of relief goods to Pakistan on 5 September 2010 as part of its ongoing relief operation. Iran is also setting up 15 relief and medical camps in every Pakistani province each capable of holding 1,000 families. On 12 September 2010, Iran allocated an additional US $100 million for Pakistan flood relief. 51% of all relief distributed by International red crescent in Pakistan had been donated by Iran. Iran announced on Nov 08, 2010 that in addition to 5,300 tonnes of aid cargo shipped by Iran to Pakistan, the Iranian hajj pilgrims will donate money and the 103,000 slaughtered sheep of Iranian pilgrims to Pakistan
Ireland An initial €200,000 was donated by the government of Ireland. An additional €550,000 was added on 9 August 2010. Then the total was €960,000. The Irish media were critical of the country's government for providing less than half the aid it donated to Haiti after the earthquake there. €1.19 million was added on 19 August, bringing the total at that stage to €2 million, the total given to the Haiti disaster. Minister for Overseas Development Peter Power, TD, said at the time that more aid would be forthcoming from Ireland and that the country had provided a "proportionally greater" amount than "most other European countries". The Irish public had provided an additional sum of more than €2.5 million by 20 August.
Israel has offered aid to Pakistan, but the officials said they have not received an answer from Pakistan on whether or not the aid should be forwarded.
Italy provided € 1.33 million, including a humanitarian aid flight carrying emergency supplies such as medicines, generators, water purifiers and containers.
Japan provided US$ 0.23 million for emergency relief goods, while additional assistance of up to US$3 million has been committed for the disaster aftermath.In a press release, Japan announced to extend the aid to 14.4 million USD (approx. 1.22 billion JPY) in total, in the form of the provision of emergency relief goods, as well as food, water, sanitation etc. Japan is also expected to send a unit of six helicopters and some 300 SDF Troops 
Jordan A plane carrying food and medical supplies left for Pakistan on 15 August. It is carrying a 25-member medical team, including nine doctors, as well as 21,000 typhoid and cholera vaccines.
Kosovo donated €150,000 to the Government of Pakistan's flood relief efforts.
Kuwait donated US $5 million to victims of the severe floods in Pakistan, according to Kuwait Red Crescent Society (KRCS).
Lebanon sent a plane to Pakistan with humanitarian aid.
Lithuania donated LTL 50,000.
Malaysia has donated $1 million to help people in flood-hit Pakistan.
The Maldives collected MVR 10 million(US $1 million) for Pakistan. The people are collecting more money. All the Maldivian broadcasting channels held a 24-hour telethon to help Pakistan and got MVR 1 million.
Morocco sent a plane carrying 12 tonnes of humanitarian aid.
Nepal cabinet provided cash assistance of Rs 10 million for flood victims in Pakistan.
Netherlands donated €3.6 million euros. Netherlands The population of the Netherlands has collected more than 17 million euros for relief aid in Pakistan.
New Zealand donated NZ$4 million towards relief efforts in Pakistan.
Nigeria also assisted Pakistan by donating US$ 1 million.
Norway facilitated relief operation by providing NOK 30 million. NOK 9 million were given to UN Central Emergency Response Fund, and NOK 21 million were allocated to UNICEF, Pakistan Emergency Response Fund (ERF), and Pakistan Red Crescent Society
The Oman Charitable Organisation (OCO) send 2,336MT of aid to Pakistan, comprising foodstuffs, water, Dates, tents, relief supplies and tools.
Palestine donated 3000 tons of humanitarian supplies to Pakistan.
Qatar Red Crescent has appealed for QR 6.5 million and as part of its Ramadan campaign allocated QR1.5 million to its humanitarian mission. QATAR Charity (QC) has started delivering food packs worth QR7 million ($2 million) in collaboration with the World Food Programme (WFP). It also plans to airlift 80 tonnes of emergency relief items, totalling around QR 2.2 million ($600,000).
Russia have sent two Russian Il-76 cargo planes with emergency relief.
Samoa donated US$20,000.
As of 17 September 2010, Saudi Arabia has allocated more than US $361.99 million for the relief operation, topping the list of all donating countries: US $105.29 million donated by the Saudi Government, US $14.7 million donated by the Saudi Fund for Development, and US $242 million collected through Saudi Public Fund Relief.Saudi Arabia released a statement announcing the establishment of an air-bridge to ferry relief-supplies to Pakistan. As of August 30, relief goods worth USD 40 million had been delivered and some USD 67 million worth of relief goods were in the pipeline; USD 5.3 million had been handed over to National Disaster Management Authority – NDMA Pakistan in cash. Two 100-bed mobile hospitals were also donated by the Saudi Government to the flood victims.
Singapore donated 50 thousand US dollars, 800 water filters and 10,000 blankets.
Slovakia donated power generators, water pumps and tents.
Sri Lanka dispatched 18 metric tons of relief goods worth approx US$ 3 million to Pakistan on a Sri Lankan Air Force C-130. The Health Ministry will also send will be in the 15 member special medical team to Pakistan.
Spain have sent out two aircraft containing 15 tonnes of aid material for the victims.
Sweden will send eight water cleaning aggregates which together have a capacity to support 18,000 people with clean drinking water.
Switzerland donated CHF 3 million to Pakistan.
Sudan donated 10 tonnes of food, medicine and shelter equipments as well as a medical team including all disciplines.
Syria announced that it would send 35 tonnes of foodstuffs, medical supplies, medicines and many other necessary materials to help flood victims.
Thailand donated $75,000.
Tunisia sent a plane with 13 tons of food products, medicine, blankets and clothes.
Turkey has donated US$ 5 million to Pakistan initially, in addition to 115 tonnes of humanitarian aid consisting of food packages, blankets, sleeping bags and beds delivered to Pakistan Red Crescent Society. By 18 August, Turkey has donated more than US$11 million and issued a rallying cry and launched a large-scale relief effort for flood-ravaged Pakistan.
Turkmenistan sent about 40 tons of cargo, including food and medicines.
United Arab Emirates A fleet of Chinook helicopters was deployed to help in evacuation, according to the commander of the UAE Armed Forces Relief Team in Pakistan. The UAE Force in Afghanistan distributed 30MT of relief materials and food to flooded areas of the country. The UAE also pledged to donate $ 5 million for the flood relief operations in Pakistan. A telethon campaign by the Red Crescent Authority (RCA) raised 79 million AED ($21 million) for the flood victims. The Red Crescent also dispatched 70 tons of essential relief supplies.
The United Kingdom has committed £134 million (US $210 million) to the relief and recovery effort, in addition to bringing forward a £10 million bridge project to replace some of those washed away. Interventions carried out or under way include the flying in of 400 metric tons of aid, and providing tents, shelter kits, blankets, water containers and nutritional interventions. Former British Prime Minister Gordon Brown has also acknowledged the slow international response and urged British public to donate generously. British monarch, Queen Elizabeth II has made a personal donation to the relief effort for flood victims in Pakistan, the Queen gave an undisclosed amount via the British Red Cross. Additionally Nick Clegg, the Deputy Prime Minister, described the international response as "absolutely pitiful" on August 16.
The United States stated that it would provide 56,000 ready meals on 1 August and 2, twelve temporary bridges and two water-filtration-plants to help the flood-victims as part of a US$10 million aid-pledge.Commenting on the floods, the United States Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, stated, "The Pakistani people are friends and partners, and the United States is standing with them as the tragic human toll mounts from flooding in northwest Pakistan." Hillary Clinton personally donated $10 for flood-relief in an effort to encourage people to donate, no matter how small the amount. On 10 August, US announced another $20 million to provide relief for the affected, taking the flood related aid from United States to US$ 55 million. On 11 August, US increased its assistance for flood-ravaged Pakistan to $ 71 million. Additionally, United States initially provided six US Army CH-47 Chinook helicopters from their duty in Afghanistan. On 12 August, it provided two more CH-53E Super Stallion helicopters to assist Pakistan Army in their relief efforts. The two helicopters are first of 19 helicopters that US Defense Secretary Robert Gates has urgently ordered for Pakistan in next few days. Senator John Kerry also visited Pakistan in order to survey the damage from the disaster, and to raise US public awareness about Pakistani relief needs. On 13 August, US increased its aid to US $84 million as USS Peleliu gets ready to dispatch more helicopters pledged earlier by US Defense Secretary.In addition to this, the United States is providing $3 million to the World Health Organization to expand the capacity of Pakistan's Disease Early Warning System (DEWS) and to establish the first 15 treatment centers for water-borne illness. It is also working with the humanitarian community to spread awareness through radio stations regarding safety precautions against water-borne diseases. On 14 August, further two CH-53E Super Stallion and a MH-53E Sea Dragon arrived in Pakistan to work with Pakistan military in flood-affected areas. On Thursday, 20 August, the United States pledged an additional $60 million to the U.N. flood relief effort in Pakistan, bringing its total contribution to $150 million in a move designed to encourage other governments and private donors to boost their aid. On Friday, 27 August, the USS Kearsarge (LHD-3) and her Amphibious Ready Group will deploy to Pakistan to assist.
Uzbekistan has sent 300,000 dollars worth of humanitarian aid to Pakistan.
Vietnam donated 50,000 dollars.
Yemen has donated relief materials including medicine and edible oil.
World Bank provided US$ 1.3 million to Pakistani government for relief work. The bank has additionally approved a loan of US$ 900 million for medium and long term reconstruction.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) has also offered to discuss how to help Pakistan manage the economic impact of the floods.
Asian Development Bank has offered a loan of 2 billion dollars for the reconstruction efforts.
Islamic Development Bank has offered a loan of 11 million dollars for the reconstruction efforts.

Response by non-governmental organizations
The Islamic Turkish NGO IHH sent 450 tons of supplies on a cargo train and another 35 tons of supplies on a cargo airplane, as well as 3000 tons of medications, medical materials, textile products, tents, blankets, cleaning materials and kitchenware.IHH opened 10 water purification units to supply clean drinking water. The foundation also set up two tent camps. A camp of 70 tents was set up in Nowshera, a city northwest of Islamabad, to house 500 people displaced by flooding. The camps include tents for schooling and for medical doctors. After the urgent relief works, IHH started to build permanent social projects for the upcoming winter season. In the first phase, 100 permanent houses for the flood victims are to be built.

DEC and member charities
The UK based Disasters Emergency Committee, reported that as of 5 October its flood relief appeal had raised over £60 million (US $96 million). As of 14 September, DEC member agencies and their partners had helped nearly three million people. For the first time in the DEC's 45 year history, they saw donations rise rather than fall in the second week of an appeal, and they then saw them rise again in the 3rd week.
Oxfam is currently providing clean water and hot meals to over 180,000 people. In total, Oxfam aims to reach around 900,000 people with clean water, sanitation kits and hygiene supplies.
Save the Children is using helicopters, donkeys and boats to deliver doctors and medical supplies to families cut off by the water. It has sent a medical team and medicines on donkeys in Allai, treated more than one thousand patients, and plans to distribute 800 shelter kits, including tarpaulins, jerry cans and plastic glasses, to flood-affected families.
The Red Cross has dispatched food and shelter items for distribution by Pakistan Red Crescent volunteers to tens of thousands of people. Additionally, it has provided medicines and medical supplies to hospitals and health centers enabling Pakistan Red Crescent health-care units to treat thousands of people.,
CARE International has provided water purification tablets, tents, family hygiene kits, kitchen sets, tarpaulins and mosquito nets to thousands of survivors. Mobile and basic healthcare units have provided health services to around 4,500 people.
Islamic Relief is distributing 3,570 family hygiene kits in Nowshera and Mardan districts benefitting 24,990 people. Also it is distributing 2,850 household kits (containing mattresses, mosquito nets etc.) and 2,850 kitchen sets to benefit 19,950 people. Pakistani cricket star Shahid Afridi is working with the NGO in raising the aid for the disaster.
Concern has helped 18,000 people and 6,500 people in Charsadda district have received emergency packages. Concern had raised more than €1 million in public donations from the Irish public by 13 August 2010.
World Vision is currently providing clean water and food in Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa province and is treating people at five health clinics. The agency plans to reach 150,000 people during the first 90 days with relief items including water purification packets, hygiene kits, tents, cooking items and food. It also aims to provide cash-for-work activities to 1,000 people, open additional health posts, set up 20 child-friendly spaces and 20 women-friendly spaces to provide a safe and comfortable environment for children and women to interact with peers and receive support. World Vision plans to expand these efforts as floodwaters recede and more communities become accessible.

Other charities
Focus Humanitarian Assistance (FOCUS), has deployed Disaster Assessment Response Team (DART) members, Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT) as well as Search and Rescue teams to assist in coordination with AKDN helicopters with evacuations, transport relief supplies and medial teams. In collaboration with the Pakistani Army, FOCUS has transported 200 MT of relief goods, 126 MT of food across Gilgit-Baltistan, Sindh, and Chitral. With the support of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), FOCUS is also supplying tents, tarpaulins, water, hygiene kits and blankets, as well as basic healthcare services, to Khyber-Pakhtunkhwah, Gilgit Balistan, Sindh and Punjab provinces.
Humanity First, in collaboration with NCHD has dispatched over 800 tents as well as mattresses, blankets, floor mats, buckets and shoes. Over 600 water survival boxes have been provided in collaboration with the British Rotary charity WorldWaterWorks Limited. HF has handed out 44 tonnes of food aid, and has assisted over 22000 people, but the response is expected to rise. Moreover, with 31 medical camps over 5000 patients have been seen.
MERCY Malaysia has set up two clinics in the districts of Nowshera and Charsadda, each with a local doctor and three medical staff. It also sent a team on 12 August to support the clinics. The NGO donated five units of ultra-filtration water systems worth US$15,000 and donated US$40,000 worth of tents, food and drinking water.
ICNA Relief Canada is actively providing emergency relief across the country. ICNA Relief is running medical relief camps in 13 locations, distributing free medication and providing ambulance services. ICNA Relief is also providing food packages (Flour, Sugar, Cooking Oil, Rice, Lentils, Biscuits and other basics) and shelters to the flood victims. Tent distribution is being made to help those whose houses have been washed away by the floods. ICNA Relief Canada has appealed to its donors for $5 million raise."ICNA Relief Canada".
Muslim Charity has launched £2 million appeal to help the victims of floods in Pakistan and raised £2 million as on Oct 2010. Muslim Charity targets to benefit 150,000 people through its activities. Muslim Charity is providing food to 100,000 people for the month of Ramadan, clean drinking water to 50,000 people, medical facilities to 30,000 people through its 18 medical camps and shelter to 8,000 people. In its second phase of relief work; Muslim Charity targets to rebuild 500 house, 2 primary schools, 2 medical centres and 10 mosques in Pakistan.
Trócaire had raised around €700,000 in donations from the Irish public by 13 August 2010. The organisation later said there were difficulties accessing food.
UNICEF has set up 24 medical camps in the affected areas, benefiting around one million people.
Giving Children Hope donated medical supplies and other aid to several medical centers in Peshawar.
Médecins Sans Frontières was in a position to respond immediately due to its long term presence in the country. MSF has deployed 100 international and 1200 Pakistani staff to provide medical care, particularly disease prevention, and resettlement services.

Other organisations
UN-SPIDER Pakistan’s Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) received assistance through the SpaceAid Framework of the United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER) during the first phase of the disaster. Through SpaceAid, SUPARCO was able to access post and pre-disaster satellite data. This information was used by Pakistan’s National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and relief organizations to assist response efforts and assess damages. Humanitarian NGOs such as iMMAP and the Pakistan Youth Organization have been using this information for their operations as well.
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) through the assistance of Sentinel Asia and International Charters provided assistance to the disaster networks in Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) and International Agency European Commission (EC). They were able to use our maps (pre and post crisis) and geospatial databases to assist in emergency response and assessing damage extent. On daily basis near-real time flood inundation online viewer was also developed to address flood-water direction and its movement which are used in humanitarian assistance.
The United Methodist Church's representatives are on the ground with a project that within the week will purify more than 3.5 million liters of drinking water and benefit more than 73,000 people a day. The Methodist are also helping to bring food relief and emergency shelter to tens of thousands of Pakistanis affected by the flooding.
The Pakistan Cricket Board and English Cricket Board Cricket Boards are working together to organize a fundraiser exhibition match for the benefit of flood victims.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) had raised at least AUD$2.8 million for UNICEF's flood relief efforts through its nation-wide radio appeal from Friday 27 August until 3 pm on Sunday 29 August 2010

Response by individuals
The Al Waleed bin Talal Foundation donated SR 10 million (USD 2.67 million) along with 10 tons of relief material including 3,500 shots of malaria medicine, 20,000 doses of diarrhoea medicine, 1,500 blankets and 1,000 sanitation kits.
The Open Society Foundation, led by George Soros donated $5 million in addition to an initial $50,000.
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation donated $700,000 for flood relief.
Angelina Jolie donated $100,000 to the United Nations for flood relief operations in Pakistan.
Tim Beel donated $500,000 to the UN for Humanitarian Aid.

Response by Islamic militant organizations
Jama'at-ud-Da'wah (JuD), an organization which is a front for banned militant group Lashkar-e-Taiba, stated that it had 2000 workers providing flood relief. JuD was banned by the United Nations in 2008 after the 2008 Mumbai attacks but was openly distributing aid under the Falah-e-Insaniyat arm of the organization.
Al Rasheed trust, an organization under UN sanctions for its links to Al-Qaeda, was among the first to provide aid to the flood victims.
Haqqania madrasa, an Islamic school with ties to the Haqqani network, converted one of their buildings into a shelter and cared for 2500 victims.
The Taliban offered to raise $20 million for flood relief if the Pakistani government rejected aid from "Christians and Jews".

Response by corporations
Karachi Electric Supply Corporation was involved in the flood relief operations, providing shelter, food, medical care, electricity and purified water to approximately 30,000 people in Thatta, Sajjawal, Sunda and Challian. KESC also provided support to four camps in Karachi; supplies delivered included tents, food, general household items, water purification plants free medical treatment to around 14,600 people. In Karachi, KESC supplied free electricity to several districts.
Coca Cola announced a donation of US $1 million.
Deloitte, a business advisory firm, donated £1 million (US $1.5 million) to the DEC appeal.
Google Foundation donated $250,000 for the flood relief efforts. A corporate broadcast was sent to all employees to raise awareness about the disaster.
BMO Financial Group, Canada’s oldest bank, donated $100,000 in support of Red Cross relief and recovery efforts. In addition, the company accepted donations through its BMO Bank of Montreal branches in Canada and its Harris branches in the United States. The company also waived fees for fund transfers and drafts to Pakistan through 17 September 2010.
Dell announced a $150,000 donation to the flood victims and matched any amount donated by Dell employees.
Intel donated $100,000 to American Red Cross for flood relief. In addition, Intel will match employee donations up to $2k per employee. A corporate broadcast was sent to all employees to raise awareness about the disaster.
JPMorgan donated $100,000.
Bank of America Corporation donated $50,000 to Save the Children.
BP donated $1 million to the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
Northwestern Mutual Foundation donated $100,000 to the American Red Cross.
Microsoft donated $700,000 cash donation, deployment of disaster management software for the Govt of Punjab at no cost, urgent food supplies to the flood victims in KPK province and software donations to various NGOs currently involved in relief activities.

Criticism of response

The Pakistani government was blamed for sluggish and disorganized response to the floods. The perceived disorganized and insufficient response led to instances of riots, with attacks and looting of aid convoys by hunger-stricken people. The lack of a unified government response allowed Islamist groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jamaat-e-Islami to supply aid with minimal resistance. President Asif Ali Zardari was also criticized for going ahead with visits to meet leaders in Britain and France at a time when his nation was facing catastrophe. In Sindh, the ruling Pakistan People's Party ministers were accused of using their influence to direct flood waters off their crops while risking densely populated areas. Pakistani ambassador for UN Abdullah Hussain Haroon called for an inquiry into allegations about rich landowners diverting water into unprotected villages to save their own crops.
The United Nations criticized the international community for responding slowly, despite the ferocity and magnitude of disaster. As of 9 August, only $45 million in aid had been committed, which is far less than usual for a natural disaster of this scale. In an analysis of the response to the disaster, The Guardian said that there was a dire need of relief goods in the immediate aftermath of the floods. It quoted the UN's humanitarian affairs coordination office, saying that "ix million [of the 14 million affected] are children and 3 million women of child-bearing age. This is a higher figure than in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami."
An analysis by AP's correspondent, Nahal Toosi, suggested that a number of factors account for the inadequate international response: namely, the low death toll, the protracted unfolding of the extent of the catastrophe, the lack of celebrity involvement, the impression that the government is not focused on the event, and a certain donor fatigue, perhaps more so as Pakistan had been receiving support before.
British Prime Minister David Cameron was accused by Pakistan of hampering international aid efforts after he claimed that Pakistan was responsible for promoting terrorism.

Neglect of minorities
It has been reported that members of Pakistan's Ahmadiyya Muslim community, who were caught up in floods in Muzaffargarh, were not rescued from their homes because rescuers felt that Muslims must be given priority. Ahmadi Muslims complained to the government that not only were they not rescued but in some instances ejected from relief camps when their identity was disclosed. Ahmadis were declared a non-Muslim minority in 1974 by the Pakistani government, which prohibited them from 'posing as Muslims', and have faced continued persecution. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan condemned the denial of relief to Ahmadis. It also stated, “The commission has noted with concern reports of lack of provision of relief goods to flood-affected Ahmadi families, expulsion of displaced Ahmadis from a government school in Dera Ghazi Khan and rented lodgings elsewhere in southern Punjab after clerics’ pressure as well as issuance of edicts by clerics that affected Ahmadis must not be provided help."
Members of the Sikh community, who arrived at gurdwaras in Lahore, also complained of government apathy. They said members of their community were abandoned in Khyber-Pakhtoonkhwa and had to arrange for rescues by themselves. In Peshawar, Sikh leaders accused the government of not helping them after the floods swept away their homes and businesses, while threatening to protest lack of assistance by the government.
Protests broke out in Lyari relief camp after Hindu victims of the Baagri and Waghari nomadic tribes were served beef by the authorities in violation of their religious beliefs, which forbid consumption of beef. The situation was resolved after officials from The Minority Affairs Ministry intervened.

Abdullah Hussain Haroon, Pakistan's diplomat to the United Nations, has alleged that wealthy feudal warlords and landowners in Pakistan have been diverting funds and resources away from the poor and into their own private relief efforts. Haroon also alluded to evidence that landowners had allowed embankments to burst, leading to water flowing away from their land. There are also allegations that local authorities colluded with the warlords to divert funds. The floods have accentuated the sharp divisions in Pakistan between the wealthy and the poor. The wealthy, with better access to transportation and other facilities, have suffered far less than the poor of Pakistan.


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