Melania Trump Club

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

Fuel extraction in Pakistan

Oil has been produced in what is now the republic of Pakistan from the early 1920's. According to Oil and Gas Journal (OGJ), Pakistan had proven oil reserves of 300 million barrels in January 2006. A number of fields were discovered in the upper Indus basin in the 1930's and 1940's. Since around 1980 a large number of hydrocarbon discoveries have been made in the central and southern parts of the country. In 1999 there were at least 70 oil and condensate fields in production, although none of them was of any great size. Total output has fluctuated within a range of about 55 000-65 000 b/d since 1989. In 2006, Pakistan produced an average of 58,000 bbl/d of crude oil, but has ambitious plans to increase its current output to 100,000 bbl/d by 2010. According to the 2008 BP Statistical Energy Survey, Pakistan consumed an average of 362.38 thousand barrels a day of oil in 2007.

The country’s oil sector is regulated by the Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Resources. The Ministry grants oil concessions by open tender and by private negotiation. BP is currently the largest oil producer in Pakistan.

Although the level of proved reserves reported by the Pakistan WEC Member Committee has tended to drift downwards in recent years, natural gas remains a major energy asset for Pakistan. According to the 2008 BP Statistical Energy Survey, Pakistan had 2007 proved natural gas reserves of 0.85 trillion cubic metres, with the major gas-producing fields being Sui in Balochistan and Mari in Sindh. According to the 2008 BP Statistical Energy Survey, Pakistan had 2007 natural gas production of 30.8 billion cubic metres and consumption of 30.8 billion cubic metres.

Oil industry

A USGS map of countries where oil is located.

Discovery
Pakistan's first oil field was discovered in the late 1952 in Baluchistan near a giant Sui gas field. The Toot oil field was discovered in the early 1960s in the Punjab. It covers 122.67 square kilometres (47.36 sq mi). Pakistan Petroleum and Pakistan Oilfields explored and began drilling these field with Soviet help in 1961 and activity began in Toot during 1964.

History
The Toot area is one of the oldest oil producing regions in Pakistan with the first oilwell was drilled in 1964 when President Ayub Khan encourages a mineral development policy. It is located in the Potwar region, Punjab Province, which It is located approximately 135 km southwest of the capital city of Islamabad. In 1964 the first well was drilled. The commercial production started in 1967. There are about 60 million barrels of oil in place with 12%-15% of which is recoverable. At its peak during 1986, the field was producing approximately 2,400 barrel of oil per day. It has grown steadily since then, producing both oil and, to a lesser degree, natural gas. Oil production was entirely confined to the Potwar Plateau till 1981, when Union Texas Pakistan discovered its first oil-field in Lower Sindh. By 1998-1999, the Lower Sindh gas-fields were producing more oil then the Potwar Plateau. Since then, new deposits have also been found here.

Modern exploration
In 2005, the Vancouver-based International Sovereign Energy signed a memorandum of understanding with the Oil and Gas Development Company Limited, Pakistan's national oil company, to develop the Toot field. Schlumberger Oilfield Services first started operations in early 2006. After favorable results, the Vancouver based 'Junior oil' and International 'Sovereign Energy Corp.' oil and gas exploration companies signed a memorandum of agreement with the Oil and Gas Development Company Limited, Pakistan's national oil company, in mid 2005, to develop the Toot field in Punjab Province, near the capital city of Islamabad. The company is also providing electricity to locals living around the residential camps of Toot oil field and the neighbouring Missa Keswaal oil field.

Pakistan Oilfields Limited
The Pakistan Oilfields Limited (POL), is a subsidiary of the Attock Group of Companies, was incorporated on November 25, 1950. In 1978, Pakistan Oilfields took over the exploration and production business of Attock Oil Company. Since then, Pakistan Oilfields has been investing independently. Pakistan Oilfields is a leading oil and gas exploration and production company listed on all the three stock exchanges of Pakistan .
Subsidiary of Pakistan Oilfields Limited
Capgas (Private) Limited (CAPGAS)

Natural gas industry



Countries where natural gas fields are located
Natural gas production is at a relatively high level and remaining reserves are estimated to be about 885.3 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.). Pakistan's gas fields are only expected to last for about another 20 years at the most due to heavy industrial usage.
The Sui gas field is the biggest natural gas field in Pakistan. It is located near Sui in Balochistan. The gas field was discovered in the late 1952 and the commercial exploitation of the field began in 1955. Sui gas field accounts for 26% of Pakistan's gas production. Remaining reserves are estimated to be at about 800 billion cubic feet (tcf) and the daily production is around 660 million cubic feet (19,000,000 m3) of natural. The operator of the field is Pakistan Petroleum Limited. A minor pip-line was bombed in southern Balochistan, by a group related to the Balochistan Liberation Front and/or Balochistan Liberation Army in the year 2000, with no fatalities.

Coal industry

History
Coal was first discovered across Pakistan and the rest of South Asia in the 1880s and was used by the British-owned railway companies under colonial rule. Later, post-colonial Pakistan had used coal to fule its industry from independence to the discovery of the Baluchistan's Sui gas field in 1952 and the Toot oilfield in 1964.
Environmentalists are now concerned that Pakistan has recently discovered 1 low and 4 low to medium quality coal seams in the Punjab and plans to re-flue its economically important cement industry with it after their oil fields have run dry due to heavy over use. Low sulfur coal was recently reported to have been found at the Baluchistan near Quetta as well. There are reports that low a sulfur deposit has been found near Islamabad.
Sindh's Thar desert and Neyveli (in Pakistan) lignite mines will also be expanded soon for industrial usage to. Special measures are being employed to reduce the resulting fly ash, carbon footprint and sulphur fume emission problems after it's burnt.

Types of coal found
Bituminous coal is a relatively hard and less sulfurus coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen and would be burnt largely on domestic fires after being turned into coke fuel.
Sub-bituminous coal is a coal whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal and is used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation. It is set to fuel power stations and cement works in Pakistan.
Lignite is a low-grade, sulfurous coal that is generally used in modified industrial furnaces to generate heat for boilers, coke oven heaters, brick kilns, etc.

Workings
Lakhara
Location-176 km north of Karachi, 65 km northwest of Hyderabad
Type of Coal-Sub-bituminous to lignite
Total coal resources- 38.82 million tons
Production- (2003–04) 217,967 tons
Dengari
Location- 35 km south-east of Quetta
Type of Coal- Sub-bituminous-A to high volatile B-bituminous
Total coal resources- 15.42 million tones
Production- (2003–04) 15,043 tons
Sor-range
Location - 16 km east of Quetta
Type of Coal- Sub-bituminous-A to high volatile B-bituminous
Total coal resources- 12.95 million tones
Production- (2003–04) 56,132 tons
Shahrig
Coal field location- 160 km north-east of Quetta
Type of Coal- Sub Bituminous B to heavy volatile Bituminous-A
Total coal resources- 28.97 million tones
Production- (2003–04) 94,583 tons
Sonda
Coal field location- Near to Quetta
Type of Coal- Sub Bituminous B to heavy volatile Bituminous-A
Total coal resources- N/A.
Production- (2003–04) N/A.

Lignite industry


Production
Sind's Thar desert and Neyveli (in Pakistan) lignite mines will also be expanded soon for industrial usage. Special measures are being employed to reduce the resulting fly ash, carbon footprint and sulphur fume emission problems after it's burnt.

Usage
Lignite is a low grade, sulphurous coal that is generally used in modified industrial furnaces to generate heat for boilers, coke oven heaters, brick kilns, etc.

Uranium production


History
Pakistan has had a long history of exporting small amounts of uranium to the west. The Tumman Leghari mine in South Punjab, Baghalchur mine, Dera Ghazi Khan mine and Issa Khel / Kubul Kel mines in, Mianwali District. Pakistan has recently used some in its own nuclear power and weapons programs.


World uranium output in 2005.

Mines
The Wahi Pandi, Karunuk (Sehwan), and Rehman Dhora (Aamri) mines in the, Kirthar Range, Sindh and the Shanawah Deposit, Karak in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province are being opened up to meet Pakistan's rising need for uranium, which these sources are issuing at a ore grade: 0.04% Uranium mineral purity rate. The Baghalchur site has several abandoned mines and is now being used as a industrial dumping ground. The Mianwali site also has several mills and processing plants to. Uranium is being mined or refined at the Miniawali site.
Baghalchur (Urdu: بغلچور) is small town in Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab, Pakistan. Baghalchur is the site of abandoned Uranium mines now being used as a nuclear dump. The resident of the area along with several Pakistani environmentalist groups are bitterly opposed to the nuclear dump being used by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) have asked the government to invest in better techniques in the disposal of nuclear waste materials.

Output
Pakistan produced about 45 tonnes of Uranium in 2006.

See also


(source:wikipedia)

No comments:

Post a Comment