Monday, December 20, 2010

Father Christmas

Excerpt from Josiah King's The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England.

Father Christmas is the name used in many English-speaking countries for a symbolic figure associated with Christmas. A similar figure with the same name (in other languages) exists in several other countries, including France (Père Noël), Spain (Papá Noel), Catalonia (Pare Noel), Brazil (Papai Noel), Portugal (Pai Natal), Italy (Babbo Natale), India (Christmas Father) and Romania (Moş Crăciun). In past centuries, the English Father Christmas was also known as Old Father Christmas, Sir Christmas, and Lord Christmas. Father Christmas is said to wear (these days) a bright red suit but in Victorian and Tudor times he wore a bright green suit. It was after World War Two that Father Christmas/Santa Claus had been redesigned to wear red an white the colours of the Coca Cola company as part of a publicity and business stunt, which proved so succesful that those are Santas colours today.
Father Christmas typified the spirit of good cheer at Christmas, but was neither a gift bringer nor particularly associated with children. The pre-modern representations of the gift-giver from church history, namely Saint Nicholas, (Sinterklaas), and folklore merged with the English, and later British Isles, character Father Christmas to create the character known to Americans as Santa Claus. Like Santa Claus, Father Christmas has been identified with the old belief in Woden (Odin to the Norse).
In the English-speaking world, the character called "Father Christmas" influenced the development in the United States of Santa Claus, and in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, most people now consider them to be interchangeable. However, although "Father Christmas" and "Santa Claus" have for most practical purposes been merged, historically the characters have different origins and are not identical. Some authors such as C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien, have insisted on the traditional form of Father Christmas in preference to Santa Claus.
In Europe, Father Christmas/Santa Claus is often said to reside in the mountains of Korvatunturi in Lapland, Finland.


The earliest English examples of the personification of Christmas are apparently those in carols of the 15th century. The manuscript Bodelian Library MS Arch. Selden b. 26, which dates from circa 1458 AD,contains an anonymous Christmas carol (f. 8) which begins with the lyrics:
Goday, goday, my lord Sire Christëmas, goday!
Goday, Sire Christëmas, our king,
for ev'ry man, both old and ying,
is glad and blithe of your coming;
Similarly, a carol attributed to Richard Smert (c. 1400–c. 1479) in British Additional MS 5665 (ff. 8v-9v), begins in dialog form:
Nowell, nowell, nowell, nowell
Who is there that singeth so: Nowell, nowell, nowell?
I am here, Sire Christësmas.
Welcome, my lord, Sire Christëmas!
Welcome to us all, both more and less!
Come near, Nowell.
Both songs then proceed to proclaim the birth of Christ in the present tense and elaborate upon the story of the nativity as occasion for rejoicing. The specific depiction of Christmas as a merry old man begins in the early 17th century, in the context of resistance to Puritan criticism of observation of the Christmas feast. He is "old" because of the antiquity of the feast itself, which its defenders saw as a good old Christian custom that should be kept. Allegory was popular at the time, and so "old Christmas" was given a voice to protest his exclusion, along with the form of a rambunctious, jolly old man. The earliest such was that in Ben Jonson's creation in Christmas his Masque dating from December 1616, in which Christmas appears "attir'd in round Hose, long Stockings, a close Doublet, a high crownd Hat with a Broach, a long thin beard, a Truncheon, little Ruffes, white shoes, his Scarffes, and Garters tyed crosse", and announces "Why Gentlemen, doe you know what you doe? ha! would you ha'kept me out? Christmas, old Christmas?" Later, in a masque by Thomas Nabbes, The Springs Glorie produced in 1638, "Christmas" appears as "an old reverend gentleman in furred gown and cap".
Scrooge's third visitor (wearing green) in Dickens's A Christmas Carol,
 a Victorian representation of Father Christmas
The character continued to appear over the next 250 years, appearing as Sir Christmas, Lord Christmas, or Father Christmas, the last becoming the most common. A book dating from the time of the Commonwealth, The Vindication of CHRISTMAS or, His Twelve Yeares' Observations upon the Times (London, 1652), involved "Old Christmas" advocating a merry, alcoholic Christmas and casting aspersions on the charitable motives of the ruling Puritans.
Father Christmas dates back at least as far as the 17th century in Britain, and pictures of him survive from that era, portraying him as a well-nourished bearded man dressed in a long green fur-lined robe. A writer in "Time's Telescope" (1822) states that in Yorkshire at eight o'clock on Christmas Eve the bells greet "Old Father Christmas" with a merry peal, the children parade the streets with drums, trumpets, bells, (or in their absence, with the poker and shovel, taken from their humble cottage fire), the yule candle is lighted, and; "High on the cheerful fire. Is blazing seen th' enormous Christmas brand." Father Christmas typified the spirit of good cheer at Christmas, and was reflected as the "Ghost of Christmas Present" in the Charles Dickens's classic A Christmas Carol (1843), a great genial man in a green coat lined with fur, who takes Ebenezer Scrooge through the bustling streets of London on Christmas morning, sprinkling the essence of Christmas onto the happy populace.
Since the Victorian era, Father Christmas has gradually merged with the pre-modern gift giver St Nicholas (Dutch Sinterklaas, hence Santa Claus) and associated folklore. Nowadays he is often called Santa Claus but also often referred to in Britain as Father Christmas: the two names are synonyms. In Europe, Father Christmas/Santa Claus is often said to reside in the mountains of Korvatunturi in Lapland Province, Finland.
Traditionally, Father Christmas comes down the chimney to put presents under the Christmas tree or in children's rooms, in their stockings. Some families leave a glass of sherry or mulled wine, mince pies, biscuits, or chocolate and a carrot for his reindeer near the stocking(s) as a present for him. In modern homes without chimneys he uses alternative 21st century electronic devices to enter the home. In some homes children write Christmas lists (of wished-for presents) and send them up the chimney or post them.

"Father Christmas" is often synonymous with Santa Claus,
Father Christmas often appears as a large man, often around 70 years old. He is dressed in a red or green snowsuit trimmed with white fur, a matching hat and dark boots. Often he carries a large brown sack filled with toys on his back (rarely, images of him have a beard but with no moustache).

In fiction

Father Christmas appears in many English-language works of fiction, including Robin Jones Gunn's Father Christmas Series (2007), Catherine Spencer's A Christmas to Remember (2007), Debbie Macomber's There's Something About Christmas (2005), Richard Paul Evans's TheGift (2007), C.S. Lewis's The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe‎ (1950), Raymond Briggs's Father Christmas (1973) and the translation from French of Jean de Brunhoff's Babar and Father Christmas (originally Babar et le père Noël, 1941). J.R.R. Tolkien's The Father Christmas Letters are letters he wrote addressed to his children from Father Christmas.
The J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia compares Tolkien's Father Christmas with L. Frank Baum's Santa Claus, as he appears in The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus:
Santa Claus's friends raise an army to save him from monsters called Awgwas. Tolkien's goblins somewhat resemble the Awgwas, who also steal presents. But Baum's Santa does not fight like Tolkien's Father Christmas does.
C.S. Lewis, a children's author and Christian apologist, preferred the traditional Father Christmas because of his clear connection with the Christian holiday of Christmas.

Names in various countries

The term "Father Christmas" is used in translation in many countries and languages. "Father Christmas" (and in some cases "baby Jesus") is used in the following countries or languages:
  • Afghanistan – "Baba Chaghaloo"
  • Albania – "Babadimri"
  • Australia – Best known as Santa Claus. Father Christmas and Saint Nick are also used.
  • Austria – "Weihnachtsmann" (not "Nikolaus", who is celebrated on 6 December) Note: The Christkind (Christ-child) is the traditional giftbringer in most parts of Austria.)
  • Armenia – "Kaghand Papik" (Կաղանդ պապիկ)
  • Azerbaijan – "Shakhta baba" (Şaxta baba)
  • Bolivia – "Papa Noel"
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina – "Deda Mraz"/Деда Мраз meaning "Grand Father Frost" (related with New Year's Eve)
  • Brazil – "Papai Noel"
  • Bulgaria – "Dyado Koleda" (Дядо Коледа), earlier "Dyado Mraz" (Дядо Мраз)
  • Canada – "Santa Claus", "Père Noël"
  • Chile – "Viejito Pascuero"
  • China – "Shengdan laoren" (Traditional Chinese: 聖誕老人,Simplified Chinese: 圣诞老人, Cantonese: "Sing Dan Lo Yan", literally "The Old Man of Christmas")
  • Costa Rica – "Colacho" (from "San Nicolás"). Note: The "Niño dios" ("Child God", meaning Jesus) is the traditional giftbringer.
  • Croatia – "Djed Božićnjak", also "Djed Mraz"
  • Czech Republic – "Ježíšek", which means "Infant-Jesus", is the traditional giftbringer in Czech Republic.
  • Denmark – "Julemanden", meaning "The Yule Man" which is the Danish equivalent to Santa Claus. "Jul" is also often translated "Christmas".
  • Ecuador – "Papa Noel"
  • Egypt – "Baba Noël"
  • Estonia – "Jõuluvana"
  • Faroe Islands – "Jólamaður"
  • Finland – Finnish: "Joulupukki", Swedish: "Julgubben"
  • France and French Canada – "Père Noël", "Papa Noël"
  • Germany – "Weihnachtsmann" (not "Nikolaus", who is celebrated on December 6). Note: The Christkind (Christ-child) is the traditional giftbringer in Southern Germany.
  • Greece / Cyprus – Άγιος Βασίλης ("Άyos Vasílis")
  • Hungary – "Mikulás" or "Télapó" ("Winter Father")
  • India – "Christmas Father", "Santa Claus"
  • Iran – "Baba Noel"
  • Iraq – "Baba Noel"
  • Iceland – "Jólasveinar" or "Yule Lads"
  • Indonesia – "Sinterklas"
  • Ireland – Santy and Santa (Claus)
  • Italy – "Babbo Natale" (traditional giftbringers are "Gesù Bambino" ("Child Jesus") on Christmas and/or Befana on January 6)
  • Japan – サンタクロース (Romaji: "Santakurōsu")
  • Kazakhstan - Колотун Бабай ('Father Frost')
  • Korea – 산타 클로스 ("santa keulloseu")
  • Latin – "Pater Natalis" or "Sanctus Nicholaus"
  • Latvia – "Ziemassvētku vecītis"
  • Lebanon – "Papa Noël"
  • Lithuania – "Kalėdų Senelis"
  • Macedonia – "Dedo Mraz" (Дедо Мраз)
  • Malta – "Christmas Father", "Father Christmas", "San Niklaw/San Nikola" ("Saint Nicholas"), "Santa Klaws" ("Santa Claus")
  • Mexico – "El Niñito Dios" ("Child God", meaning Jesus)
  • Mongolia – "Ovliin ovgon" (Өвлийн өвгөн, which means "Grandfather Winter" and is
  • Netherlands and Flanders – "Kerstman" ("Christmas man")
  • Norway – "Julenissen"
  • Pakistan – "Christmas Baba"
  • Peru – "Papá Noel"
  • Philippines – "Santa Klaus"
  • Poland – "Święty Mikołaj" (in Wielkopolska region it is rather "Gwiazdor")
  • Portugal – "Pai Natal"
  • Romania – "Moş Crăciun"
  • Russia – "Ded Moroz" (Дед Мороз, which means "Grandfather Frost" and is associated mostly with New Year's Eve)
  • Sápmi – "Juovlastállu"
  • Sardinia – "Babbu Nadale"
  • Serbia – "Božić Bata" meaning Christmas Brother (Божић Бата; related with Christmas), "Deda Mraz" meaning Grandpa Frost(Деда Мраз; related with New Year's Eve)
  • Sri Lanka – "Naththal Seeya"
  • South Africa (Afrikaans) – "Vader Kersfees" or "Kersvader", "Father Christmas" or "Santa Claus"
  • Spain and some of Spanish-speaking Latin America – "Papá Noel" ("Daddy or Father Christmas") or "San Nicolás" or "Santa Claus". The gift bringers are the Three Kings on 6 January
  • Slovakia – "Ježiško" or "Dedo Mráz"
  • Slovenia – "Božiček"
  • Sweden – "Jultomten"
  • Switzerland – "Samichlaus"
  • Turkey – "Noel Baba" (Note: In Turkey Noel Baba is related with New Year's Eve instead of Christmas.)
  • Turkmenistan – "Aýaz baba"
  • Ukraine – "Did Moroz" (Дід Мороз, associated with New Year's Eve) and "Sviatyj Mykolai" (Святиӣ Миколаӣ (Santa Claus), associated with St. Nicholas Day)
  • United Kingdom – "Father Christmas", "Santa (Claus)", "Daidaín na Nollaig" (Gaelic), "Siôn Corn" (Welsh) and "Tas Nadelik" (Cornish)
  • United States – "Santa Claus"
  • Uzbekistan – "Qor bobo" (Which means "Grandfather Snow", and is related with New Year's Eve instead of Christmas.
  • Vietnam - "Ông Già Noel" (Which means "Old man (of) Christmas")

See also


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