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Monday, February 28, 2011

Academy Award for Best Actress

Academy Award for Best Actress
Awarded forBest Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role
Presented byAcademy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
CountryUnited States
First awarded1929 (for performances in films released around 1928)
Currently held byNatalie Portman,
Black Swan (2010)
Official website
Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to recognize an actress who has delivered an outstanding performance while working within the film industry. Prior to the 49th Academy Awards ceremony (1976), this award was simply known as the Academy Award of Merit for Performance by an Actress. Since its inception, however, the award has commonly been referred to as the Oscar for Best Actress. While actresses are nominated for this award by Academy members who are actors and actresses themselves, winners are selected by the Academy membership as a whole.


Throughout the past 82 years, accounting for ties and repeat winners, AMPAS has presented a total of 83 Best Actress awards to 69 different actresses. Winners of this Academy Award of Merit receive the familiar Oscar statuette, depicting a gold-plated knight holding a crusader's sword and standing on a reel of film. The first recipient was Janet Gaynor, who was honored at the 1st Academy Awards ceremony (1929) for her performances in Seventh Heaven, Street Angel, and Sunrise. The most recent recipient was Natalie Portman, who was honored at the 83rd Academy Awards ceremony (2011) for her performance in Black Swan.

In the first three years of the Academy Awards, individuals such as actors and directors were nominated as the best in their categories. Then all of their work during the qualifying period (as many as three films, in some cases) was listed after the award. However, during the 3rd Academy Awards ceremony (1930), only one of those films was cited in each winner's final award, even though each of the acting winners had had two films following their names on the ballots. For the 4th Academy Awards ceremony (1931), this unwieldy and confusing system was replaced by the current system in which an actress is nominated for a specific performance in a single film. Such nominations are limited to five per year. Until the 8th Academy Awards ceremony (1936), nominations for the Best Actress award were intended to include all actresses, whether the performance was in either a leading or supporting role. At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony (1937), however, the Best Supporting Actress category was specifically introduced as a distinct award following complaints that the single Best Actress category necessarily favored leading performers with the most screen time. Currently, Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role, Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role, Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role, and Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role constitute the four Academy Awards of Merit for acting annually presented by AMPAS.

Other awards for acting

Actors have also received special awards, or Academy Honorary Awards, for acting in specific films (such as in the case of James Baskett, who received a special honorary award for Disney's Song of the South). Child actors have also been awarded the Academy Juvenile Award.


Superlative Best Actress Best Supporting Actress Overall
Actress with most awards Katharine Hepburn 4 Shelley Winters
Dianne Wiest 2 Katharine Hepburn 4
Actress with most nominations Meryl Streep 13 Thelma Ritter 6 Meryl Streep 16
Actress with most nominations
(without ever winning) Deborah Kerr 6 Thelma Ritter 6 Deborah Kerr
Thelma Ritter 6
Film with most nominations All About Eve
Suddenly, Last Summer
The Turning Point
Terms of Endearment
Thelma & Louise 2 Tom Jones 3 All About Eve 4
Oldest winner Jessica Tandy 80 Peggy Ashcroft 77 Jessica Tandy 80
Oldest nominee Jessica Tandy 80 Gloria Stuart 87 Gloria Stuart 87
Youngest winner Marlee Matlin 21 Tatum O'Neal 10 Tatum O'Neal 10
Youngest nominee Keisha Castle-Hughes 13 Tatum O'Neal 10 Tatum O'Neal 10
Katharine Hepburn, with four wins, has more Best Actress Oscars than any other actress. Eleven women have won two Best Actress Academy Awards; in chronological order, they are Luise Rainer, Bette Davis, Olivia de Havilland, Vivien Leigh, Ingrid Bergman, Elizabeth Taylor, Glenda Jackson, Jane Fonda, Sally Field, Jodie Foster, and Hilary Swank.
Only two actresses have won this award in consecutive years: Luise Rainer (1937 and 1938) and Katharine Hepburn (1967 and 1968).
Five women have won both the Best Actress and the Best Supporting Actress awards: Helen Hayes, Ingrid Bergman, Maggie Smith, Meryl Streep, and Jessica Lange.
Emma Thompson won a Best Actress Oscar for Howards End (1992) and a Best Adapted Screenplay Award for Sense and Sensibility (1995).
Meryl Streep holds the record of 13 nominations in the Best Actress category. Streep has been nominated 16 times (13 for Best Actress and 3 for Best Supporting Actress), which makes her the overall most-nominated performer in all acting categories.
There has been only one tie in the history of this category. This occurred in 1969 when Katharine Hepburn and Barbra Streisand were both given the award. Unlike the earlier 1932 tie for Best Actor, however, Hepburn and Streisand each received exactly the same number of votes.
Only twice have siblings been nominated for the Best Actress award during the same year: Olivia de Havilland and Joan Fontaine in 1942, and Lynn Redgrave and Vanessa Redgrave in 1967.
Only two pairs of actresses have been nominated for Best Actress for the same role: Jeanne Eagels and Bette Davis as Leslie Crosbie in The Letter (1929 and 1940), and Janet Gaynor and Judy Garland as Vicki Lester in A Star is Born (1937 and 1954). In addition, Judi Dench and Kate Winslet both received nominations (Dench for Best Actress and Winslet for Best Supporting Actress) for their portrayals of Iris Murdoch at different ages in 2001's Iris. Winslet and Gloria Stuart were also both nominated (Winslet for Best Actress and Stuart for Best Supporting Actress) for their portrayals of Rose DeWitt Bukater in Titanic (1997).
The 71st Academy Awards (1999) presented the unique case of actresses being nominated in the same year for the same character in different films. Cate Blanchett was nominated for Best Actress for playing Queen Elizabeth I of England in Elizabeth, while Judi Dench was nominated for (and won) Best Supporting Actress for playing the same character in Shakespeare in Love.
Cate Blanchett is the only actress to be nominated twice for the same role (Queen Elizabeth I), first for 1998's Elizabeth and then again for 2007's Elizabeth: The Golden Age.
Halle Berry, who won in 2002 for her role in Monster's Ball, is the only woman of African-American descent to win the Best Actress award. Seven other black actresses have been nominated: Dorothy Dandridge, Diana Ross, Cicely Tyson, Diahann Carroll, Whoopi Goldberg, Angela Bassett, and Gabourey Sidibe.
Charlize Theron is the only South African actress to win the Academy Award for Best Actress, for her role in Monster (2003).
The only Asian actress to win is Vivien Leigh, whose mother had an Irish and Indian background, while Merle Oberon, born to an Anglo-Sri Lankan mother and father of unknown ethnic origin, was nominated.
Ida Kaminska is the only Polish actress nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress, for her role in The Shop on Main Street (1965).
Only five actresses of Hispanic or Latin American descent have been nominated for the Best Actress award, but as of 2008 none has yet won: Helena Bonham Carter (1997; her mother is Spanish), Fernanda Montenegro, Brazilian, (1998; the first Latin American actress ever nominated), Salma Hayek, Mexican (2002), Catalina Sandino Moreno, Colombian (2004), and Penélope Cruz, Spanish (2006). However, Cruz won the Best Supporting Actress award for her role in the 2008 film Vicky Cristina Barcelona.
Nicole Kidman is the only Australian actress to win the Best Actress award (The Hours, 2003); other Australian nominees include May Robson for Lady for a Day (1933), Judy Davis for A Passage to India (1984), Cate Blanchett for Elizabeth (1998) and Elizabeth: The Golden Age (2007), Naomi Watts for 21 Grams (2004) and Keisha Castle-Hughes for Whale Rider (2004).
Sophia Loren, Marlee Matlin, and Marion Cotillard are the only actresses to win this award for a foreign-language performance: Loren for her Italian-language performance in Two Women (1961), Matlin for her American Sign Language performance in Children of a Lesser God and Cotillard for her French-language performance in La Vie en Rose (2007).
Cotillard was the second French actress to win the Best Actress award after Simone Signoret for her role in Room at the Top (1959). Claudette Colbert, who won the award in 1934 for her comedic performance in It Happened One Night, was born French but later became a U.S. naturalized citizen.
Jane Wyman, Marlee Matlin and Holly Hunter are the only actresses in the post–silent era to receive Academy Awards for roles that were non-speaking (in Wyman's case) or predominantly non-speaking (in Matlin and Hunter's cases). Wyman, playing a deaf rape victim in Johnny Belinda (1948), was the first person in the sound era to win an acting Oscar without speaking a line of dialogue. Matlin, who speaks just once when she argues with actor William Hurt, won the award for her American Sign Language performance in Children of a Lesser God (1986), and Hunter, who narrates several scenes and speaks on camera in the last scene (although her face is covered) for her British sign language role in The Piano (1993). Unlike Matlin, who is almost completely deaf in real life, Hunter and Wyman can hear.
No Best Actress winning or nominated performance is lost, although Sadie Thompson (1928) is incomplete and missing portions have been reconstructed with stills.
There have been no posthumous winners of the award. The only posthumous nomination of a woman for any acting award was Jeanne Eagels, who was nominated for Best Actress in 1929 for The Letter. She was the first woman to be posthumously nominated for an Oscar in any category.
The earliest nominee in this category who is still alive is Luise Rainer (1936), followed by sisters Olivia de Havilland and Joan Fontaine (both 1941).
Luise Rainer is one of only two acting winners who have ever reached the age of 100, the other being George Burns.
In 1984, three of the five nominees — Sally Field in Places in the Heart, Jessica Lange in Country, and Sissy Spacek in The River — were all nominated for playing strikingly similar roles: farmers struggling to keep their properties running against the odds, not a particularly common role. Field won the Oscar for her performance; this was her second award. Lange and Spacek had both won previously.
In 2009, Sandra Bullock became the first actor to date to have won a Razzie Award for Worst Actress and an Academy Award for Best Actress in the same weekend, but for two different roles. She won Best Actress for The Blind Side and Worst Actress for All About Steve.

Life expectancy of winners

In 2001 Donald A. Redelmeier and Sheldon M. Singh published a study in the Annals of Internal Medicine in which they found that:
"Winning an Academy Award was associated with a large gain in life expectancy for actors and actresses... Winning an Academy Award can increase a performer’s stature and may add to their longevity. The absolute difference in life expectancy is about equal to the societal consequence of curing all cancers in all people for all time (22, 23). Moreover, movie stars who have won multiple Academy Awards have a survival advantage of 6.0 years (CI, 0.7 to 11.3 years) over performers with multiple films but no victories. Formal education is not the only way to improve health, and strict poverty is not the only way to worsen health. The main implication is that higher status may be linked to lower mortality rates even at very impressive levels of achievement."
The authors did an update to 29 March 2006 in which they found 122 more individuals and 144 more deaths since their first publication. Their unadjusted analysis showed a smaller survival advantage of 3.6 years for winners compared to their fellow nominees and costars in the films in which their performance garnered them their award.However, in a 2006 published study by Marie-Pierre Sylvestre, MSc, Ella Huszti, MSc, and James A. Hanley, PhD, the authors found:
"The statistical method used to derive this statistically significant difference gave winners an unfair advantage because it credited an Oscar winner's years of life before winning toward survival subsequent to winning. When the authors of the current article reanalyzed the data using methods that avoided this "immortal time" bias, the survival advantage was closer to 1 year and was not statistically significant. The bias in Redelmeier and Singh's study is not limited to longevity comparisons of persons who reach different ranks within their profession."

Winners and nominees

Following the Academy's practice, the films below are listed by year of their Los Angeles qualifying run, which is usually (but not always) the film's year of release. For example, the Oscar for Best Actress of 1999 was announced during the award ceremony held in 2000.
The first six years of the Academy Awards are sometimes represented as one half of two consecutive years which are 1927-28 (1st), 1928-29 (2nd), 1929-30 (3rd), 1930-31 (4th), 1931-32( 5th) and 1932-33 (6th). The Academy usually simplifies this (most notably during their broadcasts and in their Oscar montages) by using the latter year to cause less confusion. (i.e. the year representing 1927-28 becomes just 1928)
Winners are listed first in bold, followed by the other nominees.

1928 (1927-28) Janet Gaynor – Seventh Heaven as Diane, Street Angel as Angela, and Sunrise as The Wife – Indre
Louise Dresser – A Ship Comes In as Mrs. Pleznik
Gloria Swanson – Sadie Thompson as Sadie Thompson
1929 (1928-29) Mary Pickford – Coquette as Norma Besant
Ruth Chatterton – Madame X as Jacqueline Floriot
Betty Compson – The Barker as Carrie
Jeanne Eagels – The Letter as Leslie Crosbie (posthumous nomination)
Corinne Griffith – The Divine Lady as Emma Hart, Lady Hamilton
Bessie Love – The Broadway Melody as Hank Mahoney
1930 (1929-30) Norma Shearer – The Divorcee as Jerry Bernard Martin
Nancy Carroll – The Devil's Holiday as Hallie Hobart
Ruth Chatterton – Sarah and Son as Sarah Storm
Greta Garbo – Anna Christie as Anna Christie and Romance as Madame Rita Cavallini
Norma Shearer – Their Own Desire as Lucia 'Lally' Marlett
Gloria Swanson – The Trespasser as Marion Donnell

1931 (1930-31) Marie Dressler – Min and Bill as Min Divot, Innkeeper
Marlene Dietrich – Morocco as Mademoiselle Amy Jolly
Irene Dunne – Cimarron as Sabra Cravat
Ann Harding – Holiday as Linda Seton
Norma Shearer – A Free Soul as Jan Ashe
1932 (1931-32) Helen Hayes – The Sin of Madelon Claudet as Madelon Claudet
Marie Dressler – Emma as Emma Thatcher Smith
Lynn Fontanne – The Guardsman as The Actress
1933 (1932-33) Katharine Hepburn – Morning Glory as Eva Lovelace
May Robson – Lady for a Day as Apple Annie
Diana Wynyard – Cavalcade as Jane Marryot
(Note: The Academy also announced that Robson came in second and Wynyard third.)
1934 Claudette Colbert – It Happened One Night as Ellie Andrews
Grace Moore – One Night of Love as Mary Barrett
Norma Shearer – The Barretts of Wimpole Street as Elizabeth Barrett
(Note: The Academy also announced that Shearer came in second and write-in candidate Bette Davis, for Of Human Bondage, came in third.)
1935 Bette Davis – Dangerous as Joyce Heath
Elisabeth Bergner – Escape Me Never as Gemma Jones
Claudette Colbert – Private Worlds as Dr. Jane Everest
Katharine Hepburn – Alice Adams as Alice Adams
Miriam Hopkins – Becky Sharp as Becky Sharp
Merle Oberon – The Dark Angel as Kitty Vane
(Note: The Academy also announced that Hopkins came in second and Hepburn third.)
1936 Luise Rainer – The Great Ziegfeld as Anna Held
Irene Dunne – Theodora Goes Wild as Theodora Lynn
Gladys George – Valiant Is the Word for Carrie as Carrie Snyder
Carole Lombard – My Man Godfrey as Irene Bullock
Norma Shearer – Romeo and Juliet as Juliet – Daughter to Capulet
1937 Luise Rainer – The Good Earth as O-Lan
Irene Dunne – The Awful Truth as Lucy Warriner
Greta Garbo – Camille as Marguerite Gautier
Janet Gaynor – A Star Is Born as Esther Victoria Blodgett, aka Vicki Lester
Barbara Stanwyck – Stella Dallas as Stella Martin 'Stell' Dallas
1938 Bette Davis – Jezebel as Julie Marsden
Fay Bainter – White Banners as Hannah Parmalee
Wendy Hiller – Pygmalion as Eliza Doolittle
Norma Shearer – Marie Antoinette as Marie Antoinette
Margaret Sullavan – Three Comrades as Patricia 'Pat' Hollmann
1939 Vivien Leigh – Gone with the Wind as Scarlett O'Hara
Bette Davis – Dark Victory as Judith Traherne
Irene Dunne – Love Affair as Terry McKay
Greta Garbo – Ninotchka as Nina Yakushova 'Ninotchka' Ivanoff
Greer Garson – Goodbye, Mr. Chips as Katherine

1940 Ginger Rogers – Kitty Foyle as Kitty Foyle
Bette Davis – The Letter as Leslie Crosbie
Joan Fontaine – Rebecca as The Second Mrs. de Winter
Katharine Hepburn – The Philadelphia Story as Tracy Lord
Martha Scott – Our Town as Emily Webb
1941 Joan Fontaine – Suspicion as Lina McLaidlaw Aysgarth
Bette Davis – The Little Foxes as Regina Giddens
Olivia de Havilland – Hold Back the Dawn as Emmy Brown
Greer Garson – Blossoms in the Dust as Edna Kahly Gladney
Barbara Stanwyck – Ball of Fire as Katherine 'Sugarpuss' O'Shea
1942 Greer Garson – Mrs. Miniver as Mrs. Miniver
Bette Davis – Now, Voyager as Charlotte Vale
Katharine Hepburn – Woman of the Year as Tess Harding
Rosalind Russell – My Sister Eileen as Ruth Sherwood
Teresa Wright – The Pride of the Yankees as Eleanor Twitchell
1943 Jennifer Jones – The Song of Bernadette as Bernadette Soubirous
Jean Arthur – The More the Merrier as Constance "Connie" Milligan
Ingrid Bergman – For Whom the Bell Tolls as María
Joan Fontaine – The Constant Nymph as Tessa Sanger
Greer Garson – Madame Curie as Marie Curie
1944 Ingrid Bergman – Gaslight as Paula Alquist Anton
Claudette Colbert – Since You Went Away as Mrs. Anne Hilton
Bette Davis – Mr. Skeffington as Fanny Trellis
Greer Garson – Mrs. Parkington as Susie 'Sparrow' Parkington
Barbara Stanwyck – Double Indemnity as Phyllis Dietrichson
1945 Joan Crawford – Mildred Pierce as Mildred Pierce
Ingrid Bergman – The Bells of St. Mary's as Sister Mary Benedict
Greer Garson – The Valley of Decision as Mary Rafferty
Jennifer Jones – Love Letters as Singleton/Victoria Morland
Gene Tierney – Leave Her to Heaven as Ellen Berent Harland
1946 Olivia de Havilland – To Each His Own as Miss Josephine 'Jody' Norris
Celia Johnson – Brief Encounter as Laura Jesson
Jennifer Jones – Duel in the Sun as Pearl Chavez
Rosalind Russell – Sister Kenny as Sister Elizabeth Kenny
Jane Wyman – The Yearling as Orry Baxter
1947 Loretta Young – The Farmer's Daughter as Katrin Holstrom
Joan Crawford – Possessed as Louise Howell
Susan Hayward – Smash-Up, the Story of a Woman as Angelica 'Angie' / 'Angel' Evans Conway
Dorothy McGuire – Gentleman's Agreement as Kathy Lacy
Rosalind Russell – Mourning Becomes Electra as Lavinia Mannon
1948 Jane Wyman – Johnny Belinda as Belinda McDonald
Ingrid Bergman – Joan of Arc as Joan of Arc
Olivia de Havilland – The Snake Pit as Virginia Stuart Cunningham
Irene Dunne – I Remember Mama as Martha 'Mama' Hanson
Barbara Stanwyck – Sorry, Wrong Number as Leona Stevenson
1949 Olivia de Havilland – The Heiress as Catherine Sloper
Jeanne Crain – Pinky as Patricia 'Pinky' Johnson
Susan Hayward – My Foolish Heart as Eloise Winters
Deborah Kerr – Edward, My Son as Evelyn Boult
Loretta Young – Come to the Stable as Sister Margaret

1950 Judy Holliday – Born Yesterday as Emma 'Billie' Dawn
Anne Baxter – All About Eve as Eve Harrington
Bette Davis – All About Eve as Margo Channing
Eleanor Parker – Caged as Marie Allen
Gloria Swanson – Sunset Boulevard as Norma Desmond
1951 Vivien Leigh – A Streetcar Named Desire as Blanche DuBois
Katharine Hepburn – The African Queen as Rose Sayer
Eleanor Parker – Detective Story as Mary McLeod
Shelley Winters – A Place in the Sun as Alice Tripp
Jane Wyman – The Blue Veil as Louise Mason
1952 Shirley Booth – Come Back, Little Sheba as Lola Delaney
Joan Crawford – Sudden Fear as Myra Hudson
Bette Davis – The Star as Margaret Elliot
Julie Harris – The Member of the Wedding as Frances 'Frankie' Addams
Susan Hayward – With a Song in My Heart as Jane Froman
1953 Audrey Hepburn – Roman Holiday as Princess Ann
Leslie Caron – Lili as Lili Daurier
Ava Gardner – Mogambo as Eloise Y. Honey Bear Kelly
Deborah Kerr – From Here to Eternity as Karen Holmes
Maggie McNamara – The Moon Is Blue as Patty O'Neill
1954 Grace Kelly – The Country Girl as Georgie Elgin
Dorothy Dandridge – Carmen Jones as Carmen Jones
Judy Garland – A Star Is Born as Vicki Lester (Esther Blodgett)
Audrey Hepburn – Sabrina as Sabrina Fairchild
Jane Wyman – Magnificent Obsession as Helen Phillips
1955 Anna Magnani – The Rose Tattoo as Serafina Delle Rose
Susan Hayward – I'll Cry Tomorrow as Lillian Roth
Katharine Hepburn – Summertime as Jane Hudson
Jennifer Jones – Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing as Dr. Han Suyin
Eleanor Parker – Interrupted Melody as Marjorie 'Margie' Lawrence
1956 Ingrid Bergman – Anastasia as Anna Koreff / Anastasia
Carroll Baker – Baby Doll as Baby Doll Meighan
Katharine Hepburn – The Rainmaker as Lizzie Curry
Nancy Kelly – The Bad Seed as Christine Penmark
Deborah Kerr – The King and I as Anna Leonowens
1957 Joanne Woodward – The Three Faces of Eve as Eve White / Eve Black / Jane
Deborah Kerr – Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison as Sister Angela
Anna Magnani – Wild Is the Wind as Gioia
Elizabeth Taylor – Raintree County as Susanna Drake
Lana Turner – Peyton Place as Constance MacKenzie
1958 Susan Hayward – I Want to Live! as Barbara Graham
Deborah Kerr – Separate Tables as Sibyl Railton-Bell
Shirley MacLaine – Some Came Running as Ginnie Moorehead
Rosalind Russell – Auntie Mame as Mame Dennis
Elizabeth Taylor – Cat on a Hot Tin Roof as Margaret 'Maggie the Cat' Pollitt
1959 Simone Signoret – Room at the Top as Alice Aisgill
Doris Day – Pillow Talk as Jan Morrow
Audrey Hepburn – The Nun's Story as Sister Luke (Gabrielle van der Mal)
Katharine Hepburn – Suddenly, Last Summer as Violet Venable
Elizabeth Taylor – Suddenly, Last Summer as Catherine Holly

1960 Elizabeth Taylor – BUtterfield 8 as Gloria Wandrous
Greer Garson – Sunrise at Campobello as Eleanor Roosevelt
Deborah Kerr – The Sundowners as Ida Carmody
Shirley MacLaine – The Apartment as Fran Kubelik
Melina Mercouri – Never on Sunday as Ilya
1961 Sophia Loren – Two Women as Cesira
Audrey Hepburn – Breakfast at Tiffany's as Holly Golightly
Piper Laurie – The Hustler as Sarah Packard
Geraldine Page – Summer and Smoke as Alma Winemiller
Natalie Wood – Splendor in the Grass as Wilma Dean 'Deanie' Loomis
1962 Anne Bancroft – The Miracle Worker as Annie Sullivan
Bette Davis – What Ever Happened to Baby Jane? as Baby Jane Hudson
Katharine Hepburn – Long Day's Journey Into Night as Mary Tyrone
Geraldine Page – Sweet Bird of Youth as Alexandra Del Lago
Lee Remick – Days of Wine and Roses as Kirsten Arnesen Clay
1963 Patricia Neal – Hud as Alma Brown
Leslie Caron – The L-Shaped Room as Jane Fossett
Shirley MacLaine – Irma la Douce as Irma La Douce
Rachel Roberts – This Sporting Life as Margaret Hammond
Natalie Wood – Love with the Proper Stranger as Angie Rossini
1964 Julie Andrews – Mary Poppins as Mary Poppins
Anne Bancroft – The Pumpkin Eater as Jo Armitage
Sophia Loren – Marriage Italian-Style as Filumena Marturano
Debbie Reynolds – The Unsinkable Molly Brown as Molly Brown
Kim Stanley – Séance on a Wet Afternoon as Myra Savage
1965 Julie Christie – Darling as Diana Scott
Julie Andrews – The Sound of Music as Maria von Trapp
Samantha Eggar – The Collector as Miranda Grey
Elizabeth Hartman – A Patch of Blue as Selina D'Arcy
Simone Signoret – Ship of Fools as La Contessa
1966 Elizabeth Taylor – Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? as Martha
Anouk Aimée – A Man and a Woman as Anne Gauthier
Ida Kaminska – The Shop on Main Street as Rozalie Lautmann
Lynn Redgrave – Georgy Girl as Georgy
Vanessa Redgrave – Morgan! as Leonie Delt
1967 Katharine Hepburn – Guess Who's Coming to Dinner as Christina Drayton
Anne Bancroft – The Graduate as Mrs. Robinson
Faye Dunaway – Bonnie and Clyde as Bonnie Parker
Edith Evans – The Whisperers as Maggie Ross
Audrey Hepburn – Wait Until Dark as Susy Hendrix
1968 Katharine Hepburn – The Lion in Winter as Eleanor of Aquitaine and Barbra Streisand – Funny Girl as Fanny Brice (tie)
Patricia Neal – The Subject was Roses as Nettie Cleary
Vanessa Redgrave – Isadora as Isadora Duncan
Joanne Woodward – Rachel, Rachel as Rachel Cameron
1969 Maggie Smith – The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie as Jean Brodie
Geneviève Bujold – Anne of the Thousand Days as Anne Boleyn
Jane Fonda – They Shoot Horses, Don't They? as Gloria Beatty
Liza Minnelli – The Sterile Cuckoo as Mary Ann 'Pookie' Adams
Jean Simmons – The Happy Ending as Mary Wilson

1970 Glenda Jackson – Women in Love as Gudrun Brangwen
Jane Alexander – The Great White Hope as Eleanor Backman
Ali MacGraw – Love Story as Jennifer Cavalleri
Sarah Miles – Ryan's Daughter as Rosy Ryan
Carrie Snodgress – Diary of a Mad Housewife as Tina Balser
1971 Jane Fonda – Klute as Bree Daniels
Julie Christie – McCabe & Mrs. Miller as Constance Miller
Glenda Jackson – Sunday Bloody Sunday as Alex Greville
Vanessa Redgrave – Mary, Queen of Scots as Mary, Queen of Scots
Janet Suzman – Nicholas and Alexandra as Empress Alexandra / Alix of Hesse Darmstadt
1972 Liza Minnelli – Cabaret as Sally Bowles
Diana Ross – Lady Sings the Blues as Billie Holiday
Maggie Smith – Travels with My Aunt as Augusta Bertram
Cicely Tyson – Sounder as Rebecca Morgan
Liv Ullmann – The Emigrants as Kristina
1973 Glenda Jackson – A Touch of Class as Vicki Allessio
Ellen Burstyn – The Exorcist as Chris MacNeil
Marsha Mason – Cinderella Liberty as Maggie Paul
Barbra Streisand – The Way We Were as Katie Morosky
Joanne Woodward – Summer Wishes, Winter Dreams as Rita Walden
1974 Ellen Burstyn – Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore as Alice Hyatt
Diahann Carroll – Claudine as Claudine
Faye Dunaway – Chinatown as Evelyn Cross Mulwray
Valerie Perrine – Lenny as Honey Bruce
Gena Rowlands – A Woman Under the Influence as Mabel Longhetti
1975 Louise Fletcher – One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest as Nurse Ratched
Isabelle Adjani – The Story of Adele H. as Adèle Hugo a.k.a. Adèle Lewry
Ann-Margret – Tommy as Nora Walker Hobbs
Glenda Jackson – Hedda as Hedda Gabler
Carol Kane – Hester Street as Gitl
1976 Faye Dunaway – Network as Diana Christensen
Marie-Christine Barrault – Cousin, cousine as Marthe
Talia Shire – Rocky as Adrian Pennino
Sissy Spacek – Carrie as Carrie White
Liv Ullmann – Face to Face as Dr. Jenny Isaksson
1977 Diane Keaton – Annie Hall as Annie Hall
Anne Bancroft – The Turning Point as Emma Jacklin
Jane Fonda – Julia as Lillian Hellman
Shirley MacLaine – The Turning Point as Deedee Rodgers
Marsha Mason – The Goodbye Girl as Paula McFadden
1978 Jane Fonda – Coming Home as Sally Hyde
Ingrid Bergman – Autumn Sonata as Charlotte Andergast
Ellen Burstyn – Same Time, Next Year as Doris
Jill Clayburgh – An Unmarried Woman as Erica
Geraldine Page – Interiors as Eve
1979 Sally Field – Norma Rae as Norma Rae Webster
Jill Clayburgh – Starting Over as Marilyn Holmberg
Jane Fonda – The China Syndrome as Kimberly Wells
Marsha Mason – Chapter Two as Jennie MacLaine
Bette Midler – The Rose as Mary Rose Foster

1980 Sissy Spacek – Coal Miner's Daughter as Loretta Lynn
Ellen Burstyn – Resurrection as Edna Mae McCauley
Goldie Hawn – Private Benjamin as Pvt. Judy Benjamin
Mary Tyler Moore – Ordinary People as Beth Jarrett
Gena Rowlands – Gloria as Gloria Swenson
1981 Katharine Hepburn – On Golden Pond as Ethel Thayer
Diane Keaton – Reds as Louise Bryant
Marsha Mason – Only When I Laugh as Georgia
Susan Sarandon – Atlantic City as Sally Matthews
Meryl Streep – The French Lieutenant's Woman as Sarah / Anna
1982 Meryl Streep – Sophie's Choice as Sophie Zawistowski
Julie Andrews – Victor Victoria as Victoria Grant, aka Count Victor Grezhinski
Jessica Lange – Frances as Frances Farmer
Sissy Spacek – Missing as Beth Horman
Debra Winger – An Officer and a Gentleman as Paula Pokrifki
1983 Shirley MacLaine – Terms of Endearment as Aurora Greenway
Jane Alexander – Testament as Carol Wetherly
Meryl Streep – Silkwood as Karen Silkwood
Julie Walters – Educating Rita as Rita
Debra Winger – Terms of Endearment as Emma Greenway Horton
1984 Sally Field – Places in the Heart as Edna Spalding
Judy Davis – A Passage to India as Adela Quested
Jessica Lange – Country as Jewell Ivy
Vanessa Redgrave – The Bostonians as Olive Chancellor
Sissy Spacek – The River as Mae Garvey
1985 Geraldine Page – The Trip to Bountiful as Carrie Watts
Anne Bancroft – Agnes of God as Mother Miriam Ruth
Whoopi Goldberg – The Color Purple as Celie Harris
Jessica Lange – Sweet Dreams as Patsy Cline
Meryl Streep – Out of Africa as Karen Blixen
1986 Marlee Matlin – Children of a Lesser God as Sarah Norman
Jane Fonda – The Morning After as Alex Sternbergen
Sissy Spacek – Crimes of the Heart as Rebecca 'Babe' / 'Becky' Magrath Botrelle
Kathleen Turner – Peggy Sue Got Married as Peggy Sue Bodell
Sigourney Weaver – Aliens as Ellen Ripley
1987 Cher – Moonstruck as Loretta Castorini
Glenn Close – Fatal Attraction as Alex Forrest
Holly Hunter – Broadcast News as Jane Craig
Sally Kirkland – Anna as Anna
Meryl Streep – Ironweed as Helen Archer
1988 Jodie Foster – The Accused as Sarah Tobias
Glenn Close – Dangerous Liaisons as Marquise Isabelle de Merteuil
Melanie Griffith – Working Girl as Tess McGill
Meryl Streep – A Cry in the Dark as Lindy Chamberlain
Sigourney Weaver – Gorillas in the Mist as Dian Fossey
1989 Jessica Tandy – Driving Miss Daisy as Daisy Werthan
Isabelle Adjani – Camille Claudel as Camille Claudel
Pauline Collins – Shirley Valentine as Shirley Valentine-Bradshaw
Jessica Lange – Music Box as Ann Talbot
Michelle Pfeiffer – The Fabulous Baker Boys as Susie Diamond

1990 Kathy Bates – Misery as Annie Wilkes
Anjelica Huston – The Grifters as Lilly Dillon
Julia Roberts – Pretty Woman as Vivian Ward
Meryl Streep – Postcards from the Edge as Suzanne Vale
Joanne Woodward – Mr. and Mrs. Bridge as India Bridge
1991 Jodie Foster – The Silence of the Lambs as Clarice Starling
Geena Davis – Thelma & Louise as Thelma Dickinson
Laura Dern – Rambling Rose as Rose
Bette Midler – For the Boys as Dixie Leonard
Susan Sarandon – Thelma & Louise as Louise Sawyer
1992 Emma Thompson – Howards End as Margaret Schlegel
Catherine Deneuve – Indochine as Eliane
Mary McDonnell – Passion Fish as May-Alice Culhane
Michelle Pfeiffer – Love Field as Lurene Hallett
Susan Sarandon – Lorenzo's Oil as Michaela Odone
1993 Holly Hunter – The Piano as Ada McGrath
Angela Bassett – What's Love Got to Do with It as Tina Turner
Stockard Channing – Six Degrees of Separation as Ouisa Kittredge
Emma Thompson – The Remains of the Day as Mary Kenton
Debra Winger – Shadowlands as Joy Gresham
1994 Jessica Lange – Blue Sky as Carly Marshall
Jodie Foster – Nell as Nell Kellty
Miranda Richardson – Tom & Viv as Vivienne Haigh-Wood
Winona Ryder – Little Women as Jo March
Susan Sarandon – The Client as Reggie Love
1995 Susan Sarandon – Dead Man Walking as Helen Prejean
Elisabeth Shue – Leaving Las Vegas as Sera
Sharon Stone – Casino as Ginger McKenna
Meryl Streep – The Bridges of Madison County as Francesca Johnson
Emma Thompson – Sense and Sensibility as Elinor Dashwood
1996 Frances McDormand – Fargo as Marge Olmstead-Gunderson
Brenda Blethyn – Secrets & Lies as Cynthia Rose Purley
Diane Keaton – Marvin's Room as Bessie
Kristin Scott Thomas – The English Patient as Katharine Clifton
Emily Watson – Breaking the Waves as Bess McNeill
1997 Helen Hunt – As Good as It Gets as Carol Connelly
Helena Bonham Carter – The Wings of the Dove as Kate Croy
Julie Christie – Afterglow as Phyllis Mann
Judi Dench – Mrs. Brown as Queen Victoria
Kate Winslet – Titanic as Rose DeWitt Bukater
1998 Gwyneth Paltrow – Shakespeare in Love as Viola De Lesseps/Thomas Kent
Cate Blanchett – Elizabeth as Elizabeth I
Fernanda Montenegro – Central Station as Dora
Meryl Streep – One True Thing as Kate Gulden
Emily Watson – Hilary and Jackie as Jacqueline du Pré
1999 Hilary Swank – Boys Don't Cry as Brandon Teena
Annette Bening – American Beauty as Carolyn Burnham
Janet McTeer – Tumbleweeds as Mary Jo Walker
Julianne Moore – The End of the Affair as Sarah Miles
Meryl Streep – Music of the Heart as Roberta Guaspari

2000 Julia Roberts – Erin Brockovich as Erin Brockovich
Joan Allen – The Contender as Sen. Laine Hanson
Juliette Binoche – Chocolat as Vianne Rocher
Ellen Burstyn – Requiem for a Dream as Sara Goldfarb
Laura Linney – You Can Count on Me as Sammy Prescott
2001 Halle Berry – Monster's Ball as Leticia Musgrove
Judi Dench – Iris as Iris Murdoch
Nicole Kidman – Moulin Rouge! as Satine
Sissy Spacek – In the Bedroom as Ruth Fowler
Renée Zellweger – Bridget Jones's Diary as Bridget Jones
2002 Nicole Kidman – The Hours as Virginia Woolf
Salma Hayek – Frida as Frida Kahlo
Diane Lane – Unfaithful as Connie Sumner
Julianne Moore – Far from Heaven as Cathy Whitaker
Renée Zellweger – Chicago as Roxie Hart
2003 Charlize Theron – Monster as Aileen Wuornos
Keisha Castle-Hughes – Whale Rider as Paikea Apirana
Diane Keaton – Something's Gotta Give as Erika Berry
Samantha Morton – In America as Sarah
Naomi Watts – 21 Grams as Cristina Peck
2004 Hilary Swank – Million Dollar Baby as Maggie Fitzgerald
Annette Bening – Being Julia as Julia Lambert
Catalina Sandino Moreno – Maria Full of Grace as María Álvarez
Imelda Staunton – Vera Drake as Vera Drake
Kate Winslet – Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind as Clementine Kruczynski
2005 Reese Witherspoon – Walk the Line as June Carter Cash
Judi Dench – Mrs Henderson Presents as Laura Henderson
Felicity Huffman – Transamerica as Bree
Keira Knightley – Pride & Prejudice as Elizabeth 'Lizzie' Bennet
Charlize Theron – North Country as Josey Aimes
2006 Helen Mirren – The Queen as Queen Elizabeth II
Penélope Cruz – Volver as Raimunda
Judi Dench – Notes on a Scandal as Barbara Covett
Meryl Streep – The Devil Wears Prada as Miranda Priestly
Kate Winslet – Little Children as Sarah Pierce
2007 Marion Cotillard – La Vie en Rose as Édith Piaf
Cate Blanchett – Elizabeth: The Golden Age as Queen Elizabeth I
Julie Christie – Away from Her as Fiona Anderson
Laura Linney – The Savages as Wendy Savage
Ellen Page – Juno as Juno MacGuff
2008 Kate Winslet – The Reader as Hanna Schmitz
Anne Hathaway – Rachel Getting Married as Kym Buchman
Angelina Jolie – Changeling as Christine Collins
Melissa Leo – Frozen River as Ray Eddy
Meryl Streep – Doubt as Sister Aloysius Beauvier
2009 Sandra Bullock – The Blind Side as Leigh Anne Tuohy
Helen Mirren – The Last Station as Sofya Tolstoy
Carey Mulligan – An Education as Jenny Mellor
Gabourey Sidibe – Precious as Claireece "Precious" Jones
Meryl Streep – Julie & Julia as Julia Child

2010 Natalie Portman – Black Swan as Nina Sayers
Annette Bening – The Kids Are All Right as Nic
Nicole Kidman – Rabbit Hole as Becca Corbett
Jennifer Lawrence – Winter's Bone as Ree Dolly
Michelle Williams – Blue Valentine as Cindy Pereira

International presence

As the Academy Awards are based in the United States and are centered on the Hollywood film industry, the majority of Academy Award winners have been Americans. Nonetheless, there is significant international presence at the awards, as evidenced by the following list of winners for the Academy Award for Best Actress.
Australia: Nicole Kidman (Kidman was born in the United States of Australian parents who were temporarily living in Hawaii; she is a citizen of both countries.)
Canada: Marie Dressler, Mary Pickford, Norma Shearer (Pickford, Shearer, and Dressler won their respective awards in three consecutive years, 1929–1931.)
France: Claudette Colbert, Marion Cotillard, Simone Signoret (Colbert later became an American citizen.)
Germany: Luise Rainer
Italy: Sophia Loren, Anna Magnani
Israel: Natalie Portman (Portman, born in Israel, has an Israeli father and an American mother, and is a dual Israeli and American citizen.)
The Netherlands: Audrey Hepburn (Hepburn had a British father and a Dutch mother; hence, she was a native-born citizen of both countries. Hepburn spent her childhood and teenage years mostly in The Netherlands and Belgium.)
South Africa: Charlize Theron (Theron later became an American citizen.)
Sweden: Ingrid Bergman (Bergman became an Italian by marriage.)
United Kingdom: Julie Andrews, Julie Christie, Olivia de Havilland, Joan Fontaine, Greer Garson, Audrey Hepburn, Glenda Jackson, Vivien Leigh, Helen Mirren, Maggie Smith, Jessica Tandy, Elizabeth Taylor, Emma Thompson, Kate Winslet (Taylor was born in England of American parents who were living there temporarily and who returned to the United States permanently in 1939. Hence, Taylor has dual citizenship and has been eligible to receive a knighthood in the United Kingdom.)
There have been two years in which all four of the top acting Academy Awards were presented to non-Americans.
At the 37th Academy Awards (1964), the winners were Rex Harrison (British), Julie Andrews (British), Peter Ustinov (British), and Lila Kedrova (Russian-born French).
At the 80th Academy Awards (2007), the winners were Daniel Day-Lewis (British and Irish), Marion Cotillard (French), Javier Bardem (Spanish), and Tilda Swinton (British).

Multiple awards

4 awards
Katharine Hepburn
2 awards
Ingrid Bergman
Bette Davis
Olivia De Havilland
Sally Field
Jane Fonda
Jodie Foster
Glenda Jackson
Vivien Leigh
Luise Rainer
Hilary Swank
Elizabeth Taylor

Multiple nominations

2 nominations
Isabelle Adjani
Jane Alexander
Cate Blanchett
Leslie Caron
Ruth Chatterton
Jill Clayburgh
Glenn Close
Marie Dresser
Sally Field
Janet Gaynor
Holly Hunter
Vivien Leigh
Laura Linney
Sophia Loren
Anna Magnani
Bette Midler
Liza Minnelli
Helen Mirren
Julianne Moore
Patricia Neal
Luise Rainer
Michelle Pfeiffer
Julia Roberts
Gena Rowlands
Simone Signoret
Maggie Smith
Barbra Streisand
Hilary Swank
Charlize Theron
Liv Ullmann
Emily Watson
Sigourney Weaver
Natalie Wood
Loretta Young
Renee Zellweger
3 nominations
Julie Andrews
Annette Bening
Claudette Colbert
Joan Crawford
Faye Dunaway
Jodie Foster
Greta Garbo
Joan Fontaine
Nicole Kidman
Eleanor Parker
Gloria Swanson
Emma Thompson
Debra Winger
4 nominations
Julie Christie
Judi Dench
Olivia De Havilland
Glenda Jackson
Jennifer Jones
Diane Keaton
Marsha Mason
Geraldine Page
Vanessa Redgrave
Rosalind Russell
Barbara Stanwyck
Kate Winslet
Joanne Woodward
Jane Wyman
5 nominations
Anne Bancroft
Ellen Burstyn
Irene Dunne
Susan Hayward
Audrey Hepburn
Jessica Lange
Shirley Maclaine
Susan Sarandon
Elizabeth Taylor
6 nominations
Ingrid Bergman
Jane Fonda
Deborah Kerr
Norma Shearer
Sissy Spacek
7 nominations
Greer Garson
10 nominations
Bette Davis
12 nominations
Katharine Hepburn
13 nominations
Meryl Streep


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