Spirit, MER-A (Mars Exploration Rover - A), is a robotic rover on Mars, active from 2004 to 2010. It was one of two rovers of NASA's ongoing Mars Exploration Rover Mission. It landed successfully on Mars at 04:35 Ground UTC on January 4, 2004, three weeks before its twin, Opportunity (MER-B), landed on the other side of the planet. Its name was chosen through a NASA-sponsored student essay competition. The rover became stuck in 2009, and it last communicated with Earth on March 22, 2010, although attempts to re-establish contact continue into 2011.
The rover completed its planned 90-sol mission. Aided by cleaning events that resulted in higher power from its solar panels, Spirit went on to function effectively over twenty times longer than NASA planners expected following mission completion. Spirit also logged about 10 kilometers of driving instead of the planned 1 km, allowing more extensive geological analysis of Martian rocks and planetary surface features. Initial scientific results from the first phase of the mission (the 90-sol prime mission) were published in a special issue of the journal Science.
On May 1, 2009 (5 years, 3 months, 27 Earth days after landing; 21.6 times the planned mission duration), Spirit became stuck in soft soil. This was not the first of the mission's "embedding events" and for the following eight months NASA carefully analyzed the situation, running Earth-based theoretical and practical simulations, and finally programming the rover to make extrication drives in an attempt to free itself. These efforts continued until January 26, 2010 (6 years and 22 days after landing; 24.6 times the planned mission duration), when NASA officials announced that the rover was likely irrecoverably obstructed by its location in soft soil, though it will continue to perform scientific research from its current location.
There has been no communication with Spirit since sol 2210 (March 22, 2010) and there is some concern that the rover was not able to survive the Martian winter. However, the rover team plans to continue to attempt to contact the lander, which may be hibernating while increasing solar levels charge its batteries, until at least summer solstice at Spirit's location in March 2011.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Exploration Rover project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington.
scientific objectives of the Mars Exploration Rover mission are to:
Search for and characterize a variety of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity. In particular, samples sought will include those that have minerals deposited by water-related processes such as precipitation, evaporation, sedimentary cementation or hydrothermal activity.
Determine the distribution and composition of minerals, rocks, and soils surrounding the landing sites.
Determine what geologic processes have shaped the local terrain and influenced the chemistry. Such processes could include water or wind erosion, sedimentation, hydrothermal mechanisms, volcanism, and cratering.
Perform calibration and validation of surface observations made by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter instruments. This will help determine the accuracy and effectiveness of various instruments that survey Martian geology from orbit.
Search for iron-containing minerals, identify and quantify relative amounts of specific mineral types that contain water or were formed in water, such as iron-bearing carbonates.
Characterize the mineralogy and textures of rocks and soils and determine the processes that created them.
Search for geological clues to the environmental conditions that existed when liquid water was present.
Assess whether those environments were conducive to life.
During the next two decades, NASA will continue to conduct missions to address whether life ever arose on Mars. The search begins with determining whether the Martian environment was ever suitable for life. Life, as we understand it, requires water, so the history of water on Mars is critical to finding out if the Martian environment was ever conducive to life. Although the Mars Exploration Rovers do not have the ability to detect life directly, they are offering very important information on the habitability of the environment during the planet's history.
To the rover
To commemorate Spirit's great contribution to the exploration of Mars, an asteroid, 37452 Spirit, has been named after it. The name was proposed by Ingrid van Houten-Groeneveld who along with Cornelis Johannes van Houten and Tom Gehrels discovered the asteroid on September 24, 1960.
Ruben H. Fleet Museum and the Liberty Science Center also has an IMAX show called Roving Mars that documents the journey of both Spirit and Opportunity, using both CG and actual imagery.
From the rover
On January 27, 2004 NASA memorialized the crew of Apollo 1 by naming three hills to the north of "Columbia Memorial Station" as the Apollo 1 Hills. On February 2, 2004 the astronauts on Columbia's final mission were further memorialized when NASA named a set of hills to the east of the landing site the Columbia Hills Complex, denoting seven peaks in that area as "Anderson", "Brown", "Chawla", "Clark", "Husband", "McCool", and "Ramon"; NASA has submitted these geographical feature names to the IAU for approval.
Vanessa Anne Hudgens (born December 14, 1988) is an American actress and singer, who is best known for her portrayal of the character Gabriella Montez in the High School Musical series. She also earned critical acclaim for her role in the 2009 film Bandslam.
As an actress, Hudgens has appeared in several television programs including Quintuplets, Still Standing, The Brothers García, Drake & Josh, and The Suite Life of Zack & Cody. She made her screen debut in the 2003 drama film Thirteen as Noel. She got her first starring role in the 2004 science-fiction-adventure film Thunderbirds as Tintin.
Hudgens' debut album V was released on September 26, 2006. The album entered the Billboard 200 at number twenty four, and was later certified Gold. Hudgens released her second album, Identified, on July 1, 2008 in the U.S.
Hudgens' fame has also been marked by scandal caused by the release of private, self-taken nude photographs of herself on the Internet without her permission on several occasions. Since a third and anonymous release of these images, the FBI is now investigating these leaked photos in an attempt to find the source. Authorities believe that as many as 50 Hollywood celebrities may have had nude photographs or videos 'hacked' from their email or cellphone accounts and then leaked onto the internet. Among the other celebrities reportedly hacked: Jessica Alba, Selena Gomez, Demi Lovato, Christina Aguilera, Scarlett Johansson, Ali Larter, and Miley Cyrus.
Her height is 5 ft 3 in (1.60 m). Us magazine said Hudgens and her High School Musical series co-star Zac Efron "met in 2005 while making the first High School Musical flick, and became a romantic item about two years later." The two were paired together during the audition process and got the part because of their chemistry. The two ended their relationship in December 2010.
In 2006, Hudgens's earnings were estimated to be $2 million. Hudgens was included in Forbes richest list in early 2007, it was posted in Forbes website, that Hudgens was included in Young Hollywood's Top Earning-Stars. On December 12, 2008, Hudgens was ranked #20 in the list of Forbes "High Earners Under 30", having reported to have an estimated earnings of $3 million in 2008. She was number 62 at FHM's Sexiest Women in the World of 2008 and number 42 in the 2009 list. Hudgens is also featured in Maxim's lists. She was included in People's annual "100 Most Beautiful People" 2008 and 2009 lists.
Hudgens is represented by William Morris Agency. Hudgens also promotes Neutrogena and was the 2008 featured celebrity for Sears' back-to school campaign. She was a spokesperson for Mark Ecko products. But in late 2009, she ended the 2-year contract with Ecko products. Hudgens regularly volunteers for charitable activities, including those for Best Buddies International, Lollipop Theater Network, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and the VH1 Save The Music Foundation.Hudgens is also featured in A Very Special Christmas Vol.7 disc which benefits the Special Olympics. Hudgens is also part of the "Stand Up to Cancer (SU2C): Change The Odds" along with other Hollywood stars including Zac Efron, Dakota Fanning, Kristen Bell, and others.
On September 6, 2007, photos of Hudgens appeared online, one showing her posing in lingerie and another showing her nude. A statement from her publicist claims that the photo was taken privately and it was unfortunate that they were released on the Internet. Hudgens later apologized, saying that she was "embarrassed over the situation" and regretted having "taken [those] photos." Hudgens subsequently released a statement indicating that she declined to comment further on the scandal. OK! magazine speculated that Hudgens would be dropped from High School Musical 3 as a result of the images. The Walt Disney Company denied the reports, saying, "Vanessa has apologized for what was obviously a lapse in judgment. We hope she's learned a valuable lesson."
Critics have noted[who?], however, that the timing of the leaked photos have generally coincided with the release of a film starring Hudgens, including High School Musical 2 in 2007, 'Bandslam' in 2009 and Beastly and Sucker Punch in 2011. In fact, on March 2011 a nude video of her was released onto the internet along with several nude photographs - some involving another female celebrity named Alexa Nikolas, the 18-year old star of Zoey 101.
In August 2009, a new set of pictures showing Hudgens topless emerged on the Internet. Hudgens's representatives did not comment, though her lawyers requested the removal of the pictures from the Internet. In late 2009, Hudgens sued "www.moejackson.com" for posting Hudgens's nude 'self-portrait photographs' taken on a mobile phone in a private home.Hudgens later commented on the photos' impact on her career in the October issue of Allure with, "Whenever anybody asks me, would I do nudity in a film, if I say that it's something I'm not comfortable with, they're like, 'Bullshit, you've already done it.' If anything, it makes it more embarrassing, because that was a private thing. It's screwed up that someone screwed me over like that. At least some people are learning from my mistake." According to Us Weekly, further pictures were released on the internet March 15, 2011.
Brian Schall sued Hudgens in 2007 for an alleged "breach of contract"; according to the suit, Schall claims he advanced costs and expenses on Hudgens’s behalf for her songwriting and recording career. Schall claims Hudgens owes him $150,000 after helping her earn more than $5 million for her music career. Hudgens argues that she was underage to sign her contract on October 2005 as she was just 16 then. Hudgens subsequently disaffirmed it on October 9, 2008. Papers filed in court by her lawyer say California's Family Code "provides that the contract of a minor is voidable and may be disaffirmed before (age 18) or within a reasonable time afterward." In 2008, Hudgens was sued by Johnny Vieira, who claims he is owed a share of Hudgens' advances, royalties and merchandising revenue in exchange for his management services. Vieira accuses Hudgens of abandoning her talent team as soon as she became a commercial name in the High School Musical era. In early May 2009, the case was settled.
Theatrical films Year Title Role Notes 2003 Thirteen Noel 2004 Thunderbirds Tintin Main character 2008 High School Musical 3: Senior Year Gabriella Montez 2009 Bandslam Sa5m 2011 Beastly Lindy Taylor 2011 Sucker Punch Blondie 2012 Journey 2: The Mysterious Island Kailani Post-Production Television films Year Title Role Channel 2006 High School Musical Gabriella Montez Disney Channel 2007 High School Musical 2 Gabriella Montez Disney Channel
Beyoncé Giselle Knowles (born September 4, 1981), often known by the mononym Beyoncé ( /biˈjɒnseɪ/ bee-YON-say), is an American recording artist, actress and fashion designer. Born and raised in Houston, Texas, she enrolled in various performing arts schools and was first exposed to singing and dancing competitions as a child. Knowles rose to fame in the late 1990s as the lead singer of the R&B girl group Destiny's Child, one of the world's best-selling girl groups of all time.
During the hiatus of Destiny's Child, Knowles released her debut solo album Dangerously in Love in 2003, which spawned the number one hits "Crazy in Love" and "Baby Boy" and became one of the most successful albums of that year, earning her a then record-tying five Grammy Awards. Following the group's disbandment in 2005, Knowles released her second solo album, B'Day in 2006. It debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and included the hits "Irreplaceable" and "Beautiful Liar". Her third solo album I Am... Sasha Fierce was released in 2008, and included the anthemic "Single Ladies (Put a Ring on It)", which achieved fame for its intricate choreography, prompting a legion of imitations and parodies from men and women all around the world. The album earned Knowles six Grammys at the 52nd Grammy Awards, breaking the record for most Grammy Awards won by a female artist in one night.
Apart from her work in music, Knowles has also been involved in acting. She made her debut in 2001, in the musical film Carmen: A Hip Hopera, and also starred in the film adaptation of the 1981 Broadway musical, Dreamgirls (2006), which earned her two Golden Globe nominations. In 2004, Knowles and her mother introduced their family's fashion line, House of Deréon, and has also endorsed brands such as Pepsi, Tommy Hilfiger, Armani and L'Oréal. In June 2010, Knowles was ranked second on Forbes list of the 100 Most Powerful and Influential celebrities in the world, and first on its list of the Most Powerful and Influential musicians in the world.
Knowles has earned numerous awards and accolades. She is one of the most honored artists by the Grammys, and third among female artists, with a total of 16 Grammy Awards — 13 as a solo artist and 3 as a member of Destiny's Child. In 2007, she became the first female artist to be awarded the International Artist Award at the American Music Awards. Knowles was ranked the 4th Artist of the 2000s decade by Billboard and was listed the most successful female artist of the decade, as well as the top radio artist of the decade. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), listed Knowles as the top certified artist of the decade.To date, she has sold 75 million records worldwide making her one of the best-selling music artists of all time.
Knowles has stated, "I like to dress sexy and I carry myself like a lady," but she has said that the way she dresses on stage is "absolutely for the stage". The media often use the term "Bootylicious" (a combination of the words booty and delicious), to describe Knowles because of her curves. The term was made widely known by the Destiny's Child hit song of the same name, and has been added to the Oxford English Dictionary.As someone who is fond of fashion, Knowles combines its artistic elements with her music videos and performances. According to Italian fashion designer Roberto Cavalli, she uses different styles and tries to harmonize it with the music while performing. The B'Day Anthology Video Album showed many instances of fashion-oriented footage, depicting classic to contemporary wardrobe styles. People magazine recognized Knowles as the best-dressed celebrity in 2007. Knowles' mother wrote a 2002-published book, titled Destiny's Style: Bootylicious Fashion, Beauty and Lifestyle Secrets From Destiny's Child, an account of how fashion had an impact on Destiny's Child's success.
Knowles and her mother introduced House of Deréon, a ready-to-wear contemporary women's fashion line, in 2005. The concept is inspired by three generations of women in their family, with the name Deréon paying tribute to Knowles' grandmother, Agnèz Deréon, who worked as a seamstress.According to Tina Knowles, the overall style of the line best reflects Knowles' taste and style. Launched in 2006, products of House of Deréon received public exhibitions during the group's shows and tours during the Destiny Fulfilled era. The store, which is available across the United States and Canada, sells sportswear, denim along with fur, outerwear and accessories including handbags. Knowles also teamed up with House of Brands, a local shoe company, to produce a range of footwear for House of Deréon.
In 2004, Knowles and her mother founded their family's company Beyond Productions, which provides the licensing and brand management for House of Deréon. In early 2008, they launched Beyoncé Fashion Diva, a mobile game with an online social networking component, featuring House of Deréon. In July 2009, Knowles and her mother launched a new junior apparel label, Sasha Fierce for Deréon, for back-to-school selling. The collection, which is inspired by Knowles' stage presence, consists of sportswear, outerwear, handbags, footwear, eyewear, lingerie and jewelry. The clothing line was picked up by department stores including Macy’s and Dillard’s and specialty stores, Jimmy Jazz and Against All Odds. In May 2010, Knowles teamed up with clothing store C&A to release her Deréon clothing line labeled, Deréon by Beyoncé for C&A. The collection was only made available in Brazilian C&A stores.
Knowles has been exposed to issues of social awareness since a young child, as her father would sometimes take her into the community, including African-American society.Knowles and Destiny's Child band mate, Kelly Rowland, along with the former's family, founded the Survivor Foundation, a charitable entity set up to provide transitional housing for 2005 Hurricane Katrina victims and storm evacuees in the Houston, Texas area. The Survivor Foundation extended the philanthropic mission of the Knowles-Rowland Center for Youth, a multi-purpose community outreach facility in downtown Houston.Knowles donated $100,000 to the Gulf Coast Ike Relief Fund, which benefits victims of Hurricane Ike in the Houston area. She is organizing a fund raising benefit for Hurricane Ike relief through the Survivor Foundation. In 2005, music producer David Foster, his daughter Amy Foster-Gillies, and Knowles wrote "Stand Up for Love", which would serve as the anthem of World Children's Day, an event which takes place annually around the world on November 20 to raise awareness and funds for children's causes worldwide. Destiny's Child lent their voices and support as global ambassadors for the 2005 World Children's Day program. Knowles conducted food drives during stops on The Beyoncé Experience tour in Houston on July 14, Atlanta on July 20, Washington, D.C. on August 9, Toronto on August 15, Chicago on August 18, and Los Angeles on September 2, 2006.
Films Year Title Role Notes 2002 Austin Powers in Goldmember Foxxy Cleopatra Nominated — Black Reel Award: Best Breakthrough Performance Nominated — MTV Movie Award for Best Breakthrough Performance 2003 The Fighting Temptations Lilly Nominated — Black Reel Award: Best Actress Nominated — NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Motion Picture 2004 Fade to Black Herself Jay-Z documentary 2006 The Pink Panther Xania 2006 Dreamgirls Deena Jones Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy Nominated — MTV Movie Award for Best Performance - Female Nominated — Black Reel Award: Best Actress Nominated — NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Actress in a Motion Picture Nominated — Satellite Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy Nominated — Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Leading Role 2008 Cadillac Records Etta James Won — Black Reel Award: Best Ensemble Nominated — NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture Nominated — Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture 2009 Obsessed Sharon Charles Won — MTV Movie Award for Best Fight 2012 A Star Is Born Esther Hoffman Lead Role
Jennifer Anne Affleck, more commonly known by her birth name, Jennifer Garner (born April 17, 1972), is an American actress. Garner gained recognition on television for her performance as CIA agent Sydney Bristow in the thriller drama series Alias, which aired on ABC for five seasons from 2001 to 2006. While working on Alias, she gained minor roles in hit movies such as Pearl Harbor (2001) and Catch Me if You Can (2002). Since then, Garner has appeared in supporting as well as lead roles on the big screen in projects including Daredevil (2003), 13 Going on 30 (2004) and Juno (2007). She is married to actor and director Ben Affleck, with whom she has two daughters.
On October 19, 2000, Garner married actor Scott Foley, whom she had met on the set of Felicity in 1998. After separating from Foley in March 2003, Garner filed for divorce in May 2003, citing irreconcilable differences, and the two were officially divorced on March 30, 2004. Following her separation, Garner dated Alias co-star Michael Vartan from August 2003 to March 2004.
Sometime in early to mid 2004, Garner started dating Daredevil co-star Ben Affleck and the two made their first public appearance as a couple by attending the Boston Red Sox's opening World Series games in October 2004. Since her relationship with Affleck, first as girlfriend and then as wife, Garner has been a tabloid staple. "Ben taught me that you cannot read that stuff, that it’s poison," she said in 2009. On Garner's 33rd birthday, Affleck proposed to her with a 4.5 carats (900 mg) diamond ring from Harry Winston. Affleck married Garner, who was three months pregnant at the time, on June 29, 2005 in a private ceremony, officiated by family friend and Garner's Alias co-star, Victor Garber, at the Parrot Cay resort on the Turks and Caicos Islands. In December 2005, Garner gave birth to their first daughter, Violet Anne Affleck. The couple's second child, Seraphina Rose Elizabeth Affleck, was born in January 2009.
Garner had been stalked since 2002 by a man, Steven Burky, who was eventually arrested in December 2009, after violating a 2008 restraining order against him.Burky was charged with two counts of stalking, to which he pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity; in March 2010, he was ruled insane and sent to the California state mental hospital with a court order to stay away from the Affleck family for 10 years if released from the hospital.
Garner enjoys cooking and gardening. She has a yellow Labrador Retriever named "Martha Stewart" (after the television personality), that appeared with her on the television show Martha on January 24, 2007. In December 2007, Garner was named The Charleston Sunday Gazette-Mail's 2007 West Virginian of the Year "for her dedication, work ethic and unique role as role model and ambassador for West Virginia."
Years Title Role Notes
1997 In Harm's Way Kelly
1997 Deconstructing Harry Woman in Elevator
1997 Washington Square Marian Almond
1997 Mr. Magoo Stacey Sampanahodrita
1998 1999 Annabell Alternative title: Girls & Boys
2000 Dude, Where's My Car? Wanda
2001 Pearl Harbor Nurse Sandra
2001 Rennie's Landing Kiley Bradshaw Alternative title: Stealing Time
2002 Catch Me If You Can Cheryl Ann Cameo Role
2003 Daredevil Elektra Natchios
2004 13 Going on 30 older Jenna Rink
2005 Elektra Elektra Natchios
2006 Catch and Release Gray
2007 The Kingdom Janet Mayes
2007 Juno Vanessa Loring Nominated—Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated—Broadcast Film Critics Association Award for Best Cast
2009 Ghosts of Girlfriends Past Jenny Perotti
2009 The Invention of Lying Anna
2010 Valentine's Day Julia Fitzpatrick
2011 Butter Laura Pickler Post-production
2011 Arthur Susan Johnson Post-production
Geraldine Anne Ferraro (August 26, 1935 – March 26, 2011) was an American attorney, a Democratic Party politician and a member of the United States House of Representatives. She was the first female Vice Presidential candidate representing a major American political party.
Ferraro grew up in New York City and became a teacher and lawyer. She joined the Queens County District Attorney's Office in 1974, where she headed the new Special Victims Bureau that dealt with sex crimes, child abuse, and domestic violence. She was elected to Congress in 1978, where she rose rapidly in the party hierarchy while focusing on legislation to bring equity for women in the areas of wages, pensions, and retirement plans. In 1984, former Vice President and presidential candidate Walter Mondale selected Ferraro to be his running mate in the upcoming election. In doing so she became the only Italian American to be a major-party national nominee in addition to being the first woman. The positive polling the Mondale-Ferraro ticket received when she joined faded as questions about her and her husband's finances arose. In the general election, Mondale and Ferraro were defeated in a landslide by incumbent President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush.
Ferraro ran campaigns for a seat in the United States Senate from New York in 1992 and 1998, both times emerging as the front-runner for her party's nomination but losing in primary elections both times. She served as a United States Ambassador to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights from 1993 until 1996, in the presidential administration of Bill Clinton. She also continued her career as a journalist, author, and businesswoman, and served in the 2008 presidential campaign of Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton. Ferraro died on March 26, 2011, after a 12-year battle with multiple myeloma.
Match fixers are headed for Mohali by the hordes in what could be an estimated Rs 5,000 crore bonanza during the semifinal match slated for Wednesday, March 30. Insiders say they are planning a halt at New Delhi before heading north for the encounter. A key bookie says they prefer to watch it themselves before laying big bets since they do not want to take any chances during this crucial match. It helps that the TV telecast is a few seconds late.
Match fixers are laying their bets on India at 58 paise, while Pakistan is attracting Rs 1.60 paise if they manage to beat the rejuvenated Indian team. Insiders say most small-time Match fixers and punters have shifted base to plush farmhouses outside city limits. Many have migrated to Gujarat and a few have headed to casinos in Goa, where officials are known to have turned a blind eye to betting syndicates.
Already a large number of trusted 'errand' boys have been recruited to carry cash consignments after the final bet amount is finalised. The cash settlement usually takes place within 24 hours of the result. Tally clerks have also been recruited to take note of the bets and prepare balance sheets. Most transactions are recorded through software tailor-made for the purpose.
Mahendra Singh Dhoni, (born July 7, 1981 in Ranchi, Bihar) (now in Jharkhand) is an Indian cricketer and the current captain of the Indian national cricket team.
Initially recognized as an extravagantly flamboyant and destructive batsman, Dhoni has come to be regarded as one of the coolest heads to captain the Indian ODI side. Under his captaincy, India won the 2007 ICC World Twenty20, CB Series of 2007–08 , and the Border-Gavaskar Trophy 2008 in which they beat Australia 2–0. He also captained Chennai Super Kings to victory in the recent IPL 2010. He is now captain of India in all three forms of the game and also led the team to their first ever bilateral ODI series wins in Sri Lanka and New Zealand. Dhoni also led team India to number one position in ICC rankings in test cricket for the first time. Dhoni has also been the recipient of many awards including the ICC ODI Player of the Year award in 2008 and 2009 (the first Indian player to achieve this feat), the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award and the Padma Shri, India's fourth highest civilian honour in 2009. As of January 2010, Dhoni is the highest ranked ODI batsman on the ICC Rankings List. Dhoni was named as captain of Wisden's first-ever Dream Test XI Team in 2009 and has topped the list of world’s top 10 earning cricketers compiled by Forbes. He was named as the captain of ICC World Test and ICC ODI teams for 2009.
Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar born 24 April 1973) is an Indian cricketer widely regarded as one of the greatest batsmen in the history of cricket. He is the leading run-scorer and century maker in Test and one-day international cricket. He is the only male player to score a double century in the history of ODI cricket. In 2002, just 12 years into his career, Wisden ranked him the second greatest Test batsman of all time, behind Donald Bradman, and the second greatest one-day-international (ODI) batsman of all time, behind Viv Richards.In September 2007, the Australian leg spinner Shane Warne rated Tendulkar as the greatest player he has played with or against.
Tendulkar is the first and the only player in Test Cricket history to score fifty centuries, and the first to score fifty centuries in all international cricket combined; he now has 99 centuries in international cricket. On 17 October 2008, when he surpassed Brian Lara's record for the most runs scored in Test cricket, he also became the first batsman to score 12,000, 13,000 and 14,000 runs in that form of the game,having also been the third batsman and first Indian to pass 11,000 runs in Test cricket. He was also the first player to score 10,000 runs in one-day internationals, and also the first player to cross every subsequent 1000-run mark that has been crossed in ODI cricket history and 200 runs in a one-day international match. In the fourth Test of the Border-Gavaskar Trophy against Australia, Tendulkar surpassed Australia's Allan Border to become the player to cross the 50-run mark the most number of times in Test cricket history, and also the second ever player to score 11 Test centuries against Australia, tying with Sir Jack Hobbs of England more than 70 years previously. Tendulkar passed 30,000 runs in international cricket on 20 November 2009. He also holds the world record for playing highest number of Test and ODI matches.Tendulkar has been honoured with the Padma Vibhushan award, India's second highest civilian award, and the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award, India's highest sporting honor. Tendulkar became the first sportsperson and the first personality without an aviation background to be awarded the honorary rank of Group Captain by the Indian Air Force. He has received honorary doctorates from Mysore University and Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences He won the 2010 Sir Garfield Sobers Trophy for cricketer of the year at the ICC awards.
Mohali (Punjabi: ਮੋਹਾਲੀ, mōhālī) is a city adjacent to Chandigarh, 18th District in Punjab, India. It is officially named after the eldest son of Guru Gobind Singh, Sahibzada Ajit Singh (SAS Nagar, or "House of Sahibzada Ajit Singh"). It along with Chandigarh and Panchkula form a part of the Chandigarh Tricity or Chandigarh Capital Region. It was earlier a part of the Rupnagar District, and was carved out into a separate district in the recent years.
Mohali was conceived after the trifurcation of Punjab and its capital Chandigarh becoming a Union Territory in late 1966. Today, Mohali and Chandigarh are contiguous areas with only the boundary of Punjab and UT of Chandigarh dividing this area. The original plan of Mohali is in fact a mere extension of the road and design system of Chandigarh without any unique planning. The development earlier was only till Phase VII. The development of sectors and phases from Phase 8 onwards started in late 1980s, and the city got its own bus stand in Phase 8 in mid 1990s. In 2006, Mohali's population was nearly 200,000, approximately 1/5 of Chandigarh's. The region has been targeted by an increasing number of outsourcing IT companies, who look to capitalize on the rich investment opportunities the city offers.
Mohali comes under the jurisdiction of Punjab State while Punchkula is a part of Harayana. This urban area is now popularly known as the Tri-city. Nowadays Mohali is a separate district of Punjab.
In 1992, the Punjab Cricket Association (PCA) unveiled a plan to build a state of the art facility complete with a separate practise ground - to be built in a swampy area in Mohali . The PCA invested heavily in the ground, a swimming pool, health club, tennis court, library, restaurant, and bar and outdoor & indoor cricket practice nets were incorporated into the plans.
Most of the Punjab-based national cricketers train in Mohali, including Yuvraj Singh, Harbhajan Singh, Dinesh Mongia, Manpreet Gony and Punjab cricket team. It will play host to India Pakistan semi-final in WC'11
Team India lives another day to play the dream semifinal against Pakistan and that means advertisers, who banked on the 50- over World Cup, feel they have got a bigger bang for their buck than expected.
It's not only the advertisers, the ICC World Cup is turning out to be a jackpot for the broadcaster ESPN Star Sports (ESS) as well. Media planners told TOI that ESS has hiked its advertising rates-the amount a brand pays to be seen on air-to as much as Rs 17-18 lakh for a ten second spot for the India-Pakistan semifinal scheduled to be played in Mohali on March 30. This is a huge jump from Rs 3.5- 4 lakh for a ten second spot the broadcaster charged before the start of the tournament.
Wagah, Mar.26 (ANI): A senior member of the Pakistan Cricket Board arrived here on Saturday with his family to complete the logistics for high dignitaries expected to visit Mohali for the semi-final World Cup clash between India and Pakistan.
"The whole country would like to visit to Mohali to watch the India - Pakistan cricket match to be held on March 30, but it is not possible," said the general manager of marketing for the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB), Tariq Hakim.
He said he was expecting tough match between the two sides, but felt the event would bring the two countries closer. By ravinder Singh Robin (ANI)
Day after Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh flagged off his cricket diplomacy, ordinary cricket fans from across the border have been left out in the cold.
All of 120 visas have been issued to Pakistani cricket officials for the high-Profile ICC World Cup semifinal between India and Pakistan at the Punjab Cricket Association stadium in Mohali on Wednesday. And two-thirds of them have gone to Pakistani officials and cricket board honchos, leaving only about 40 for genuine lovers of the game.
Expected on the stands for the mother of all cricket battles are Pakistan Prime Minister Syed Yusaf Raza Gilani and the governor of Pakistan's Punjab province, Latif Khosa. But if captain Shahid Afridi was expecting a rousing reception from his home fans, he would be sorely disappointed.
In their defence, government sources here claimed that since January they had been offering as many as 5,000 (Increased 6500) visas to Pakistani cricket fans, provided they applied for the visa with a ticket in hand.
"There is no scope now for issuing any more visas to Pakistani cricket fans as the tickets for the match have already sold out," a source said, adding: "It is bad luck for Pakistani cricket fans - they should have bought the tickets on time and applied for a visa."
The source said that because Pakistan had no league match scheduled in India, and their place in the semi-final was confirmed only this Wednesday, most fans from the neighbouring country had missed the bus. All the 16,000-odd general tickets for the Mohali match got sold out by Tuesday.
For those Pakistani nationals who are in India on a tourist visit visa, there might still be a likelihood of watching the match from the stands provided they manage to grab a ticket in the black market. But for those who plan to travel for this high-octane clash, there's virtually no hope. And even if they manage to procure tickets now, the visa procedure won't allow them enough time to ensure their passage to India.
India has been extra cautious on the visa front this time following alarming disclosures by David Headley to the National Investigation Agency (NIA) year 2010.
Headley had told the NIA that in 2005, key 26/11 plotters Sajid Majid Mir and Abdur Rehman Pasha had crossed over to India at the Wagah border on the pretext of watching an India-Pakistan match. Once here, they did a recce of the National Defence College in New Delhi and the Indian Military Academy in Dehra Dun.
Pakistan VS India Semi Final on 30 March - Highlights of Last game played at Mohali b/w Pak and India
The government, meanwhile, is quite certain that Gilani and Khosa would attend the match. But they won't travel to Delhi.
"No formal talks are expected between Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Gilani," a government source said. "Pakistan's Prime Minister would not be travelling to Delhi. He is expected to arrive in Chandigarh in a special plane and fly back, probably on the night of the match itself."
Pakistan's President Asif Ali Zardari excused himself because of protocol issues, as the invitation was sent out by the Indian Prime Minister, and not the President. Pakistan is expected to send a formal communication to India after Gilani and Zardari discuss the issue on Monday. Pakistan has also dropped enough hints that it would reciprocate India's goodwill gesture.
"The invitation of love from India will receive a response of love from Pakistan, which will not waste any opportunity to improve bilateral relations," the country's information minister, Ashiq Awan, said. Meanwhile, with several high-profile dignitaries and ministers expected to attend the match, NSG commandos have been given the task of securing the stadium.
The venue has also been declared a no-fly zone, as Punjab is a sensitive border state. Anti-aircraft guns will be stationed for security, even as a dedicated CRPF contingent will guard both the teams.
The NSG will also be responsible for securing Mumbai's Wankhede Stadium for the final as there is a heightened threat perception of a terror strike there. An Interpol team is helping India screen travellers.
Before the action shifts to Mohali, the Centre is planning some hard talk when the home secretaries of the two countries meet on Monday and Tuesday. India is expected to again hand over dossiers citing Pakistan's inaction in the 26/11 probe, besides a list of 40 terrorists, and take up the issue of fake notes being pushed into the country.
India, which will be represented by home secretary G.K. Pillai, will also remind Pakistan that it has not fulfilled any of its promises made to home minister P. Chidambaram during his visit to Islamabad year 2010.
India expects Pakistan to raise the issue of its pending demand that a Pakistani judicial commission be allowed to visit India and ask for details on the Samjhauta Express blast probe.
The director-general of Pakistan's Federal Investigation Agency (FIA), Waseem Ahmed, who has probed the 26/11 case in Pakistan, will attend the talks as part of the seven-member Pakistani delegation.
Ahmed may also have a separate one-onone session with CBI director A.P. Singh. The spirit of bonhomie on the field may not penetrate the closed doors when the two delegation sit down to play "hard ball".
Sahibzada Mohammad Shahid Khan Afridi (born 1 March, 1980 in Khyber Agency of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Pakistan), popularly known as Shahid Afridi ( شاهد افریدی) is a Pakistani cricketer and current One Day International (ODI) and Twenty20 captain of the Pakistani national team in the international circuit. He made his ODI debut on 2 October 1996 against Kenya and his Test debut on 22 October 1998 against Australia.
Shahid Afridi makes 32 runs from 1 over vs Sri Lanka
He is known for his aggressive batting style, and holds the record for the fastest ODI century which he made in his first international innings, as well as scoring 32 runs in a single over, the second highest scoring over ever in an ODI. He also holds the distinction of having hit the most number of sixes in the history of ODI cricket. Afridi considers himself a better bowler than batsman, and has taken 48 Test wickets and over 300 in ODIs. Currently Afridi is the leading wicket taker in the Twenty20 format taking 53 wickets from 41 matches.
In June 2009 Afridi took over the Twenty20 captaincy from Younus Khan, and was later appointed ODI captain for the 2010 Asia Cup. In his first match as ODI captain against Sri Lanka he scored a century however Pakistan still lost by 16 runs. He then also took over the Test captaincy but resigned after one match in charge citing lack of form and ability to play Test cricket; at the same time he announced his retirement from Tests. He retained the captaincy in limited-overs form of the game and led the team in the 2011 World Cup.
Punjab Cricket Association Stadium is located at Mohali, just outside the city of Chandigarh. It is popularly referred to as the Mohali Stadium. The stadium is home to the Punjab team. Punjab's second international cricket stadium has been approved by BCCI in Bathinda, Punjab. The construction of the stadium took around 25 crore and 3 years to complete.. The stadium has an official capacity of 45000 spectators.
The lights here are unconventional compared to other cricket stadiums, in that the light pillars are very low in height. This is to avoid aircraft from the nearby airport colliding with the light pillars.
The 19th and youngest Test cricket venue in India, this is one of the larger grounds in the country and sports a lush outfield. The pitch has a reputation for being lively and supporting pace bowlers. It was inaugurated with a One Day International match between India and South Africa during the Hero Cup on November 22, 1993.
The first Test match here was held the following season, between India and West Indies on December 10, 1994. One of the most famous one-day matches on this ground was a thrilling Cricket World Cup semi-final encounter between Australia and West Indies in 1996. PCA stadium will host 3 matches of 2011 world cup including the Semi-final between India and Pakistan on March 30th, 2011.
PCA stadium is home of Kings 11 Punjab (IPL Mohali franchisee).
The current pitch curator for the PCA Stadium is Daljit Singh and the design consultant is Ar. Sufyan Ahmad.
was raised to dislike Elizabeth Taylor. My mother, who taught me about the movies, disapproved of her countless men — she never forgave Liz for stealing Eddie from Debbie — and flat-out scoffed at her acting. "She's only beautiful," Mom would snort, a line I found convincing — until I reached puber....
NEW YORK, March 24, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Sirius XM Radio (Nasdaq: SIRI) today announced it is honoring and celebrating the life of Hollywood icon Elizabeth Taylor with a wide range of special programming across multiple talk/entertainment channels. The tribute to the Academy Award®-winning actress and tireless AIDS advocate, who passed away at age 79 on March 23....
I was in 3rd grade the first time I saw Elizabeth Taylor onscreen. It was during summer, on one of those sweltering South Texas hot days, when going outside was like sauntering into hell. I flopped onto the couch and flipped through the channels.
Elizabeth Taylor was a terrific actress, wonderful mother, activist, hollywood royalty, and a beautiful woman inside and out. Many blessings to you and your family, Elizabeth. You were an inspirational to all.
Liz, what a Dame. A woman for all time, but she certainly left her mark on the 20th Century. Loyal, caring, unpretentious, open/honest, brave, full of life/spirit, talented actress, fascinating, real, magnetic, and a "superstar" when that term really meant something. Both my grandmothers were named Elizabeth, and Heaven just received another angel named Liz.
List of film and television credits
Year Title Role Notes
1942 There's One Born Every Minute Gloria Twine
1943 Lassie Come Home Priscilla
1944 Jane Eyre Helen Burns uncredited
1944 The White Cliffs of Dover Betsy uncredited
1944 National Velvet Velvet Brown
1946 Courage of Lassie Katherine Eleanor Merrick
1947 Life with Father Mary Skinner
1947 Cynthia Cynthia Bishop
1948 A Date with Judy Carol Pringle
1948 Julia Misbehaves Susan Packett
1949 Little Women Amy
1949 Conspirator Melinda Greyton
1950 The Big Hangover Mary Belney
1950 Father of the Bride Kay Banks
1951 Father's Little Dividend Kay Dunstan
1951 A Place in the Sun Angela Vickers
1951 Quo Vadis Christian prisoner in arena uncredited
1952 Love Is Better Than Ever Anastacia "Stacie" Macaboy
1952 Ivanhoe Rebecca
1953 The Girl Who Had Everything Jean Latimer
1954 Rhapsody Louise Durant
1954 Elephant Walk Ruth Wiley
1954 Beau Brummell Lady Patricia Belham
1954 The Last Time I Saw Paris Helen Ellswirth/Willis
1956 Giant Leslie Lynnton Benedict
1957 Raintree County Susanna Drake Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actress
1958 Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Maggie the Cat Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actress
1959 Suddenly, Last Summer Catherine Holly Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actress
1960 Scent of Mystery The Real Sally uncredited
1960 Butterfield 8 Gloria Wandrous Academy Award for Best Actress
1963 Cleopatra Cleopatra
1963 The V.I.P.s Frances Andros
1965 The Sandpiper Laura Reynolds
1966 Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Martha Academy Award for Best Actress
1967 The Taming of the Shrew Katharina Producer (uncredited)
1967 Doctor Faustus Helen of Troy
1967 Reflections in a Golden Eye Leonora Penderton
1967 The Comedians Martha Pineda
1967 The Comedians in Africa Herself documentary short
1968 Boom! Flora 'Sissy' Goforth
1968 Secret Ceremony Lenora
1969 Anne of the Thousand Days Courtesan uncredited
1970 The Only Game in Town Fran Walker
1970 Here's Lucy Herself TV series, 1 episode
1972 X,Y, and Zee Zee Blakely
1972 Under Milk Wood Rosie Probert
1972 Hammersmith is Out Jimmie Jean Jackson Silver Bear for Best Actress at Berlin
1973 Divorce His, Divorce Hers Jane Reynolds TV movie
1973 Night Watch Ellen Wheeler
1973 Ash Wednesday Barbara Sawyer
1974 Identikit Lise Also known as The Driver's Seat
1974 That's Entertainment! Herself Co Host
1976 The Blue Bird Queen of Light/Mother/Witch/Maternal Love
1976 Victory at Entebbe Edra Vilonfsky TV movie
1977 A Little Night Music Desiree Armfeldt
1978 Return Engagement Dr. Emily Loomis
1979 Winter Kills Lola Comante uncredited
1980 The Mirror Crack'd Marina Rudd
1981 General Hospital Helena Cassadine #1 TV series, 3 episodes
1983 Between Friends Deborah Shapiro TV movie
1984 Hotel Katherine Cole TV series, 1 episode
1984 All My Children Boardmember at the Chateau TV series
1985 Malice in Wonderland Louella Parsons TV movie
1985 North and South Madame Conti TV mini-series
1986 There Must Be a Pony Marguerite Sydney TV movie
1987 Poke Alice Alice Moffit TV movie
1988 Young Toscanini Nadina Bulichoff
1989 Sweet Bird of Youth Alexandra Del Lago TV movie
1992 The Simpsons Maggie Simpson TV series, voice
1992 Captain Planet and the Planeteers Mrs Andrews voice
1993 The Simpsons Herself TV series, voice
1994 The Flintstones Pearl Slaghoople
1996 The Nanny Herself TV series, 1 episode
2000 God, the Devil and Bob Sarah voice
2001 These Old Broads Beryl Mason TV movie
Spot-fixing refers to illegal activity in a sport where a specific part of a game is fixed. Examples include something as minor as timing a no ball or wide delivery in cricket or timing the first throw-in or corner in association football. Spot-fixing attempts to illegally defraud bookmakers by a player agreeing to perform to order by pre-arrangement. As such spot-fixing differs from match fixing, where a whole match is fixed, or point shaving, a specific type of match fixing in which corrupt players (or officials) attempt to limit the margin of victory of the favoured team. Spot-fixing is more difficult to detect than match fixing or point shaving. Spot-fixing is most associated with the betting markets of the Indian subcontinent where bets can be placed on individual deliveries in a cricket match. The advent of Twenty20 cricket is said to have made spot-fixing more difficult to detect as has the growth of Internet gambling and spread betting.
Matt Le Tissier bet on the timing of the first throw-in in a match he played for Southampton against Wimbledon in 1995. The plan failed when a team mate who was unaware of the scam managed to keep his underhit pass on the pitch. Le Tissier was forced to quickly kick the ball from play to prevent himself losing money on the bet but neither won nor lost money after managing to kick the ball out after 70 seconds. He stated that he felt so silly about the incident that he never did it again.,
Spot-fixing in Cricket,
In the 2010 Pakistan tour of England it was alleged Pakistani players Mohammad Asif and Mohammad Amir bowled no balls at specific points as part of a conspiracy involving captain Salman Butt to defraud bookmakers. As a result, Salman Butt has been banned for 10 years, Asif for 7 and Amir for 5 years. The matter is now a criminal investigation.
Further information: Pakistan cricket spot-fixing controversy
In England, allegations of spot-fixing have been made against two Essex players, the Pakistani Test bowler Danish Kaneria and Mervyn Westfield.
There have been allegations of spot-fixing during the 2010 National Rugby League season match between North Queensland and Canterbury-Bankstown. It is alleged that Canterbury-Bankstown's Ryan Tandy was involved in spot-fixing the first score of the match to be a North Queensland penalty goal: observers noted that there was an unusually high proportion of bets taken on the penalty goal option for the game, and that Tandy's actions early in the game (including a handling error and conceding a penalty) would have facilitated such a scam. Tandy, as former player John Elias and Tandy's manager Sam Ayoub, have all been arrested in connection with the incident. None of the cases has progressed through the court system yet.
If indeed this was a case of spot-fixing, it was an unsuccessful one, as North Queensland passed up its easy penalty goal opportunity and scored a try instead.