International reactions to the 2011 Libyan uprising are the responses to the ongoing series of protests and confrontations occurring in Libya against the government of Libya and its head of state Muammar Gaddafi.
Most states and supranational bodies have condemned Libya's bombing of civilian targets within the country with the notable exception of Nicaragua's Daniel Ortega and Venezuela's Hugo Chavez who were supportive of Gaddafi. Peru also cut off diplomatic relations with Libya over the aerial bombings. There have also been calls for the imposition of a no-fly zone.
Many states have also either issued travel advisories or attempted evacuations. Some evacuations were successful in either going to Malta or via land borders to Egypt or Tunisia; other attempts were hindered by tarmac damage at Benghazi's airport or refusals of permission to land in Tripoli. There were also several solidarity protests in other countries that were mostly composed of Libyan expatriates. Financial markets around the world had adverse reactions to the instability with oil prices rising to a two-and-a-half year high.
African Union – Chairman of the African Union Commission Jean Ping said the AU was in contact with the Libyan government and that it condemned the crackdown against protesters.
Arab League – Secretary-General Amr Moussa stated initially that he was deeply concerned about the situation in Libya and urged for immediate stop of the violence. Later, after an emergency meeting on 22 February, the organisation suspended Libya from taking part in council meetings and Moussa issued a statement condemning the "crimes against the current peaceful popular protests and demonstrations in several Libyan cities."
European Union – The High Representative of the European Union for External Policy, Catherine Ashton has condemned the crackdown of protests by Libyan authorities and pushed back any threat of Tripoli towards the EU. "The European Union is extremely concerned about the events unfolding in Libya and the reported deaths of a very high number of demonstrators. The EU urges the authorities to exercise restraint and calm and to immediately refrain from further use of violence against peaceful demonstrators. The legitimate aspirations and demands of the people for reform must be addressed through open and meaningful Libya-led dialogue. (...) We have heard threats, we hear people saying you should do this, you should do that, but in the end the EU will do what is right," Ashton replied concerning threats Libya delivered to the rotating Hungarian presidency of the EU, stating that Tripoli would end co-operation on blocking irregular immigration into the EU if Brussels did not side with Gaddafi.
United Nations – Secretary General Ban Ki-moon in a statement said that bombs against civilians "if confirmed, would constitute a serious violation of international humanitarian law and would be condemned by the secretary-general in the strongest terms." He later issued another statement saying he was "outraged."
Security Council President and Permanent Representative of Brazil to the UN Maria Luiza Viotti said in a statement after closed-door consultations that the Security Council "condemned the violence and use of force against civilians, deplored the repression against peaceful demonstrators, and expressed deep regret at the deaths of hundreds of civilians" and also called for "an immediate end to the violence and for steps to address the legitimate demands of the population, including through national dialogue. They underscored the need to hold to account those responsible for the attacks, including by forces under their control, on civilians."
In the evening of 26 February, the Security Council voted unanimously to pass resolution 1970 introduced by France, the UK, Germany and the US that would sanction ten top Libyan officials, Gaddafi and his family. It also issued travel bans and an arms embargo. The Security Council also referred the situation to the International Criminal Court for a war crimes investigation into "widespread and systemic attacks" against protesters. It was only the second time the Security Council had referred a case to the ICC (the first being Darfur) and the first unanimous referral.
Navi Pillay, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, condemned the violence employed by security forces for its use of live ammunition against protesters.
Bahrain – Foreign Minister who? speaking to Al Jazeera's David Frost, when asked of the comparative responses in Libya and his own country called the situation in Libya "tragic."
Egypt – Yusuf al-Qaradawi, a Sunni cleric and a member of the Muslim Brotherhood, issued a fatwa on 21 February for the assassination of Gaddafi saying that "whoever in the Libyan army is able to shoot a bullet at Mr. Gaddafi should do so."
Israel – President Shimon Peres said from Spain that there was "an irony of history" that Gaddafi had once called for "a Middle East without Israel" but that "there will be a Libya without Gaddafi."
Leader of the Opposition and former Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni wrote that the protesters were part of "days of momentous change in the Middle East" and that "Much has been said in recent years about the 'clash of civilizations'...yet today, this battle is being waged at least as much within societies as between them. In the best-case scenario, the wave sweeping across the region will enable democracy to take root in the Arab world - not merely as a government system but as a values system that embraces nonviolence, coexistence, freedom, opportunity and equality...But the negative scenario is that this opening will be abused by those for whom democratic values are foreign and who seek to use the democratic process to advance an anti-democratic agenda...A universal standard, applied to all states, that empowers those truly committed to democracy and disempowers the extremists who seek to abuse it, offers an opportunity to advance the free world's hopes, confront our fears and answer the call of thousands throughout the Middle East."
Kuwait – The government condemned Gaddafi and called for all Arab countries to condemn the violence.
Lebanon – Hezbollah said that "anyone with honour and consciousness in this world cannot, and should not, keep silent on the massacres that the Gaddafi regime is committing across the country on a daily basis. Hezbollah firmly condemns crimes committed by the Gaddafi regime against the oppressed Libyan people. Hezbollah expresses support to the revolutionists (sic) in Libya and we pray that they will triumph over this arrogant tyrant." The Shia population was also reported to have taken notice that Musa Sadr's 1978 disappearance in Libya could be resolved.
Lebanon and Syria were said to be in talks on a possible rescue mission for its citizens.
Lebanon refused landing permission to a private Libyan aircraft with 10 people on board after Lebanon asked Libya to show the identities of the passengers before take off from Tripoli. Hannibal Gaddafi's wife Aline Skaff was reported to be one of the passengers.
Qatar – The Foreign Ministry commented: "Qatar is following with extreme concern the current events in Libya as well as the authorities' use of warplanes and firearms against civilians...Qatar denounces the use of these arms and asks the Libyan authorities to stop the use of force against civilians and end the bloodshed."
United Arab Emirates – The government condemned the violence against the protesters and President Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan instructed his family's charity foundation to provide relief aid to the people of Libya.
Botswana – The government condemned the violence. "The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation has today, called in the Libyan representative to protest in the strongest possible terms, against the killings and condemn these actions. The government urges the Libyan government to exercise restraint in addressing the situation." Botswana then severed diplomatic ties with Libya on 24 February because "the leader of Libya was not remorseful and made defiant pronouncements despite the violence visited on its people..."
The Gambia – President Yahya Jammeh urged Gaddafi to step down and criticised the African Union for its "unacceptable silence."
Lesotho – The government was concerned about the situation.
Liberia – The government condemned the violence and expressed regret at the loss of lives of Africans in Libya.
Mauritania – A member of parlament condemned the "awful killings" in Libya and expressed solidarity with the protesters.
Mozambique – President Armando Guebuza condemned the violence in the Arab world, including Libya.
South Africa – The Government of South Africa notes with grave concern the reports of numerous civilian deaths following anti-government protests in Libya. The Government of South Africa continues to monitor the situation with interest and calls on all parties involved to exercise restraint in order to prevent further loss of life. The Government of South Africa calls on the Government and people of Libya to seek a speedy and peaceful resolution to the current crisis in accordance with the will of the people.
Argentina – The Argentinian Government expressed "deep concern", regretted the loss of lives, and made vows for a quick peaceful solution.
Brazil – The Brazilian Ministry of External Relations issued a statement condemning "the acts of violence that were carried out during recent popular demonstrations, leading to civilian deaths" and called "on the officials in that country to uphold and protect the right of free expression of the protesters". The Brazilian Government also urged the Libyan authorities to "urgently address the need to ensure the safe withdrawal of Brazilian citizens who are in the cities of Tripoli and Benghazi".
Canada – Foreign Affairs Minister Lawrence Cannon has condemned crackdowns on "innocent protesters", and called on the Libyan security forces "to respect the human rights of demonstrators and uphold their commitment to freedom of speech and the right to assembly." Cannon announced on 22 February that it is sending flights to Libya to rescue stranded Canadians, who will be flown through Europe back home. 331 Canadians are registered with the embassy in Tripoli, and 91 have told staff they plan to leave.
Canada suspended its diplomatic presence in Libya on 26 February.
Canada imposed a freeze of the assets of Libyan leader Moammar Ghadaffi and his family on 27 February 2011.
Chile – The Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a second statement on 23 February expressing that "upon the persistence of unjustified use of force against civil population, the Government of Chile deplores and energetically condemns the governmental repression against its citizens, an action contrary to the spirit of dialogue claimed by Chile and the international community to solve the political crisis in that country, and deeply opposed to the full respect for the human rights consigned in the charter of the United Nations. Therefore, the Government of Chile urges Libyan authorities to establish mechanisms for dialogue and citizen participation and to immediately cease the repression against its own people."
Colombia - President Juan Manuel Santos condemned the way the Libyan regime is acting upon its people and said that "what is happening in Libya is unacceptable."
Cuba – The former President of Cuba Fidel Castro expressed concern that the United States was preparing to invade Libya.
Dominica – Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit said he was concerned about the events in Libya.
Grenada – The government condemned the violence.
Nicaragua – President Daniel Ortega said he had telephoned Gaddafi to express his solidarity.
Peru – President Alan García said that "Peru strongly protests against the repression unleashed by the dictatorship of Muammar Al-Qadhafi against the people who are demanding democratic reforms to change the government which has been led for 40 years by the same person." Garcia said that Peru would ask the UN Security Council to establish a no-fly zone over Lybia to prevent the use of the country’s warplanes against the population. Peru also became the first country to cut ties with Libya on 23 February "until the violence against the people ceases"as a result of the aerial bombing of Tripoli.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – Several opposition leaders were angry that the government was still accepting aid from Libya. They call it "blood money."
United States – President Barack Obama said that he was "deeply concerned" by the violence. Later, US Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, stated that "Now is the time to stop this unacceptable bloodshed." Senators Jon Kyl and Mark Kirk said that "we urge the president to speak out clearly in support of the Libyan people." The U.S. State Department ordered all family members of its embassy employees and non-essential personnel to leave Libya. Obama and Clinton sharpened their criticism after the formation of a rival government in Benghazi, issuing statements urging Gaddafi to step down. Clinton added on 27 February that the U.S. has begun "reaching out" to the organisers of an "interim" government" and that "We’ve been reaching out to many different Libyans who are attempting to organize in the east and, as the revolution moves westward, there as well. I think it’s way too soon to tell how this is going to play out, but we’re going to be ready and prepared to offer any kind of assistance that anyone wishes to have from the United States."
The United States suspended embassy operations on 25 February, after a plane left for Istanbul carrying the last remaining embassy personnel.
The United States also moved to freeze $30 billion in assets belonging to the Libyan government and to Colonel Muammar el-Qaddafi and his family.
Uruguay - The Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated on its website that "they are following the violence in Libya with deep concern." The government expressed "concern about the acts of violence taking place in the country, mourning the loss of lives," and urged the government of Libya to conduct a constructive dialogue that allows a pacific end to the current events, with due respect to human rights and democratic values." It also expressed satisfaction over the condemning of the bombings by the United Nations Security Council.
Venezuela – Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez tweeted: "Gaddafi is facing a civil war. Long live Libya. Long live the independence of Libya." Venezuelan Foreign Minister Nicolás Maduro expressed hope that the Libyans would find "a way of solving their problems peacefully without the interference of imperialist states whose interests in the region had been affected". On 1 March, Chávez proposed an international meditation effort between Gaddafi and the opposition to provide a "peaceful solution" to the uprising.
China - Chinese foreign ministry spokesperson Ma Zhaoxu said China hopes Libya can "restore social stability and normalcy as soon as possible and spare no effort to protect the safety of Chinese people, organizations and assets in Libya." More than 30,000 Chinese nationals worked in Libya, including on oil fields, small shops.
China began their evacuation efforts immediately on February 23rd by chartering jets and ferries to Tripoli.
On February 25th, Chinese PLA Navy guide missile frigate Xuzhou was ordered to be the guardship to Chinese evacuation efforts, after being detached from anti-piracy operations off Somali coast. It passed the Suez Canal three days later.
15,000 Chinese nationals were evacuated as on February 26th, according to Chinese foreign ministry. Evacuation effort has been speed up to 15 chartered jet per day.
Iran – President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad condemned the crackdown asking "How can a leader subject his own people to a shower of machine-guns, tanks and bombs? How can a leader bomb his own people, and afterwards say 'I will kill anyone who says anything?'" Foreign Ministry spokesman Ramin Mehmanparast also condemned the Libyan government's crackdown stating "the Islamic Republic of Iran deems the Libyans' uprising and their rightful demands in line with the region's Islamic awakening."
Japan – Foreign Minister Seiji Maehara denounced the Libyan government for the use of extreme violence against civilian demonstrators and urged it to immediately stop the crackdown.
India – The government strongly condemned the violence after an Indian man was killed and many others were injured during the protests.
Indonesia – President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono stated that the number of dead had become "inappropriate." He also wrote a letter to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon urging the body and the international community to take action helping the people of Libya to prevent more tragedy and casualties. The Minister of Foreign Affairs Marty Natalegawa said that Indonesia is deeply concerned with the situation in Libya, while also announced that Indonesia is seeking the end of the unrest peacefully, democratically and with dialogue.
Maldives - The government called on Gaddafi to step down.
Philippines - Acting Foreign Affairs Secretary Albert del Rosario was sent to Tunisia to supervise the repatriation of Filipino expatriates.
South Korea - South Korea has sent chartered jets to Tripoli and is also dispatching a warship that was taking part in anti-piracy operations off the coast of Somalia.
Turkey – The government warned Libya that it was making a mistake in ignoring its peoples' demands. This came despite calls from Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan to his ministers not to comment on the situation pending evacuations of Turkish citizens which had been hampered. Turkey had sent flights to Benghazi, but were turned back because there was no air traffic control. Consequently Turkey sent in catamarans to evacuate its citizens, though some had flown out earlier and some were driven out of Libya to one of its neighbours. Still, Turkish Trade Minister Zafer Caglayan said his country had evacuated almost 600 of its nationals from Libya after looters raided the facilities of Turkish construction companies, but there are no known reports of Turkish citizens being harmed in the raids.
Austria – The Austrian Defence Ministry spokesman Michael Huber said that the Austrian Army had evacuated 62 European nationals.
Belarus – Press Secretary of the Belarusian Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Andrei Savinykh, declared on February 21 that "we hope for a swift cessation of violence and reinstatement of peace and order in that friendly country".
Belgium – Foreign Minister Steven Vanackere was concerned about the issue. "I don't think the situation in Libya can be compared to what happened in Tunisia or Egypt. The average income is bigger and the wage gap is not so outspoken. I think it's mostly the lack of political and personal freedom that is driving people into the streets...For the European Union, Libya is a country with a particular position. Many African refugees who are on their way to Europe, are being stopped in Libya. The fact that Muammar Gaddafi is threatening to open the door to Europe for refugees, is making some nervous. But it's a ridiculous threat."
Bulgaria – Two airlifts of Bulgarian citizens have been carried out so far. The first flight of Bulgaria Air began on 22 February carrying 110 citizens; the second airplane of the Governmental Air Transport Service "Force 28" left Libya shortly before noon on 23 February. That flight carried one Bulgarian female and 82 other citizens of Bulgaria's neighbours Croatia, Serbia and FYR Macedonia and citizens of China. It is expected that up to 100 additional Bulgarian citizens are to be evacuated by the Turkish MV Iskenderun at noon on 24 February as a result of co-operation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Turkey. After a period of a friendly relationship between Libya and Bulgaria the two countries were experiencing a cooling in their diplomatic ties as a result of the Judicial Prosecution against Bulgarian medics under charges of deliberate infusion of AIDS-infected blood to over 400 children in Benghazi. Nevertheless there were Bulgarian contractors in a number of occupations, roughly counted up to 2000 people. That was read as the main reason for the lack of official response from Bulgaria.
Czech Republic – Prime Minister Petr Nečas denounced violence against civilians in Libya, saying that "The bloodshed aimed against the civilian population is an unprecedented violation of human rights and has no place in the civilised world. We are shocked at the brutality of the reaction of the Libyan regime to the civic demonstrations." Foreign Minister Karel Schwarzenberg said the EU should not "get involved too much": "If Gaddafi falls, [well] there are bigger catastrophes in the world. It's no use for anyone if we intervene there loudly, just to prove our own importance." Schwarzenberg said later that his remarks were misunderstood, and it was "nonsense" to interpret it as support for Gaddafi. He elaborated further by stating that the Czech Republic fully supports the joint statement from EU foreign ministers that called for an immediate end to the crackdown by Gaddafi's regime.
Denmark – Prime Minister of Denmark Lars Løkke Rasmussen condemned the attacks against civilians. "Popular protests have been met with violence. It is deeply, deeply disturbing. I condemn in the strongest terms what is completely unacceptable violence that we have witnessed in Libya in recent days... There is every reason to sharply distance oneself from Gaddafis completely unacceptable statements about suspending refugee cooperation with the European Union if the EU continues to support Libya's pro-democracy groups" he said. On 24 February, the Government of Denmark revealed that three Danish kids who live with their fathers family are still in Tripoli, Libya. Danish Foreign Minister Lene Espersen required EU sanctions against Gaddafi.
Finland – Foreign Minister Alexander Stubb condemned the violence against civilians and said: "This is about citizens’ right to participate in social decision-making and respect for human rights. Dialogue with citizens must be launched. Finland also considers it important that the violence is investigated and those guilty are brought to account for their acts. Finland demands that Libya cooperates to ease and speed up the evacuation of foreigners."
France – President Nicolas Sarkozy said that the "violence must cease immediately." He also called for the imposition of a no-fly zone over Libya to prevent the Libyan Air Force from bombing the protesters. Prime Minister François Fillon said he was "horrified by the amount of violence." France also announced they were sending military aircraft to evacuate its citizens on 22 February. EU Affairs Minister Laurent Wauquiez described the repression as "completely unacceptable".
Greece – A Greek ship arrived in Ra's Lanuf on 22 February to rescue stranded citizens.
Georgia – Foreign Minister Grigol Vashadze was also supportive of the prospect of EU sanctions against Gaddafi.
Germany – Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle demanded the end of violence, while Germany's state secretary for EU affairs Werner Hoyer declared: "We are watching with great concern and indignation the violence used by state authorities in Libya and in other states.". Germany issued a travel warning for Libya. Angela Merkel declared that Gaddafi's second speech is "very very frightening" and that "he has declared war against his own people". Germany has sent three planes, a Lufthansa jet as well as two Transall transport planes of the German military, which landed in Tripoli on 22 February and are expected to leave later that day.
Iceland – Foreign Minister Össur Skarphéðinsson said that the Libyan government had committed war crimes by firing at unarmed citizens with heavy artillery and planes. He later added that the government of Iceland harshly condemns the acts of Libyan government. He also said that he supported the "wave of freedom" in North-Africa and that the government of Iceland supports every force which wants Gaddafi out.
Ireland – Although no formal comments have been made about this by any Irish officials due to an ongoing election campaign, Irish Air Corps and Department of Foreign Affairs are planning to fly its 40 citizens out of Libya. Two aircrafts left Casement Aerodrome for Valetta in Malta on the night of 22 February. The two planes landed in Libya at around 16:50 GMT on 23 February but later returned to Valetta with no passengers on board.
Italy – On 19 February, Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi declared his worries about the regional instability. "I haven't yet heard from Gaddafi. The situation is evolving and so I don't feel I should disturb anyone."On 21 February, Berlusconi has called the attacks on protesters "unacceptable." He called on the EU to step in to prevent the situation from escalating into a civil war. Foreign Minister Franco Frattini added on 21 February: "Italy as you know is the closest neighbour of both Tunisia and Libya so we are extremely concerned about the repercussions on the migratory situation in the southern Mediterranean." Frattini spoke of the "possibility of a reform of the constitution that could be taken up soon by the People's Congress." Defence Minister Ignazio La Russa confirmed the dispatch of at least one Italian electronic warfare and reconnaissance naval vessel near Libyan territorial waters. It is believed that some special force soldiers may be aboard the ship, although their purpose was unknown.
Luxembourg – Foreign Minister Jean Asselborn said he is "not afraid" of "a dictator who shoots at his own people."
Malta – On 21 February, Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi said that the government of Malta was closely watching the events and condemned all forms of violence and bloodshed. Gonzi said the evolving situation was discussed at a cabinet meeting and Malta hoped that the best would come out of this situation for Libya and the region. He added that Libya's territorial integrity was respected.
Netherlands – The Netherlands sent a KDC-10 aircraft to Libya on 22 February. It left later that evening with Dutch and EU citizens. The Dutch foreign minister hoped that another aircraft could land the following day.
Norway – In a statement, Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Støre condemned the violence against "peaceful protesters in Libya, Bahrain and Yemen", saying the protests "are an expression of the people’s desire for more participatory democracy. The authorities must respect fundamental human rights such as political, economic and social rights. It is now vital that all parties do their utmost to foster peaceful dialogue on reforms."
Poland – The Foreign Ministry said that they are closely observing the events in Libya. A government aircraft was sent to pick up any Polish citizens in Libya. However, after only fifteen Poles decided to leave the country, the aircraft took British, Danish and Romanian citizens on board.
Romania – The government of Romania sent an aircraft, to evacuate Romanians in Libya. According to the Foreign Ministry, 500 Romanians are in Libya.
Russia – Russia condemned the use of violence against the civilians, and said that Libya has to "respect human rights and international law."
Spain – On 20 February, Spanish Foreign Minister Trinidad Jiménez convened a press meeting with fellow EU foreign ministers, at the European Council in the hope of getting them to evacuate the EU’s citizens from Libya. All arm sales to Libya were suspended three days later.
Slovenia – Prime Minister Borut Pahor said that "as the head of the Slovenian Government I condemn the violence used by African governments, especially in Libya, against the people which demand political and social changes. Repression must end; a democratic dialogue must begin about the future of these countries."
Switzerland – The government has stated that Gaddafi's assets in the country will be frozen.
United Kingdom – Prime Minister David Cameron criticised Libya's response to the protests as "unacceptable, counter-productive and wrong." Foreign Secretary William Hague stated that "the United Kingdom condemns what the Libyan government has been doing...and we look to other countries to do the same." The government also announced that in light of the unrest it has decided to revoke some arms export licenses stating that "licenses will not be issued when officials judge that there is a risk that the exports may provoke regional or internal conflicts or be used to facilitate internal repression."
On 27 February, the government revoked the diplomatic immunity for Gaddafi and his family
Former Foreign Secretary, David Owen called for a no-fly zone to be imposed immediately. However, the BBC have suggested that the UN would be unlikely to authorised such an action.
On 22 February 2011 the Royal Navy ship, HMS Cumberland, was deployed to waters close to Libya in preparation to rescue British nationals. On 23 February, he issued a press release saying that there are "many indications of the structure of the state collapsing in Libya." He also urged the Libyan state to listen people demands.
Australia – Prime Minister Julia Gillard has joined the international condemnation on Gaddafi's use of force on protesters, stating "There is no excuse and no tolerance from the Australian government for violence being reaped against peaceful protesters. So our message to the government of Libya, to Colonel Gaddafi, is that they must respect peaceful protest." Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd called for sanctions against Libya. After detailing to parliament the speech made by Gaddafi on 22 February, Rudd said "these are not the words of a responsible political leader, these are the words of a dictator out of control". Rudd has also said further steps should be taken, including suspending Libya from the United Nations Human Rights Commission. During a visit to Egypt he also said that "Libya is in the middle of a civil war and that civil war has now reached the streets of Tripoli. It seems to us increasingly that the days of this regime are numbered. The key thing is to see the unity of international opinion on this matter so that those within Libya know that the world is as one." He also said that more measures such as no fly zone may be needed.
New Zealand – In remarks at a press conference, Prime Minister John Key said New Zealand recognised the "deteriorating situation" in Libya. Key blamed the escalating protests on socioeconomic inequality and "constrained civil liberties" and said that embassy staff in Tripoli were working to locate 26 New Zealanders living in Libya.
Non-UN Member Governments
Kosovo - On 26 February, President Behgjet Pacolli stated he "was completely on the side of the people of Libya." On 19 February, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs said that it had identified 50 of its citizens in Libya. In the absence of formal diplomatic relations between Kosovo and Libya, Kosovars in distress were advised to contact Kosovo's embassy in Ankara, Turkey. As of 24 February, 27 citizens of Kosovo had been evacuated from Libya. Eight Kosovar students were reported to have left Tripoli on February 25, and the Foreign Ministry said on 26 February that 20 expatriates were at Tripoli's airport waiting to leave on a Turkish plane. On February 27, media reports citing foreign ministry officials said that only 24 of 61 Kosovars had left Libya, while the remaining were expected to evacuate soon.
Palestine – The Gaza Strip's Hamas Government issued a statement saying it "strongly condemns massacres, airstrikes and artillery fire against the Libyan people by the Libyan regime."
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb condemned Gaddafi and expressed solidarity with the protesters. "We were pained by the carnage and the cowardly massacres carried out by the killer of innocents Gaddafi against our people and our unarmed Muslim brothers who only came to lift his oppression, his disbelief, his tyranny and his might." It also said: "We will do whatever we can to help you, with power from Allah, because your fight is the fight of every Muslim who loves Allah and His Messenger. It is time for the impostor, sinful, hard-hearted bastard Gadaffi to meet the same end as Hosni Mubarak and Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. We declare our support and aid to the Libyan revolution in its legitimate demands, and we assure our people in Libya that we are with you and we will not let you down." The statement comes amid warnings by the Libyan deputy foreign minister that the group has organised an Islamic emirate in Darnah; however the residents of the city said it was not true and that the Libyan government was trying to "scare Europe."
Avaaz.org, an international civic organisation, initiated an appeal, to international officials to impose specific actions to stop the violence against civilians and prosecute violators, which collected 400,000 signatures as of 23 February.
Doctors Without Borders issued a statement saying that while there were members in Libya working with wounded protesters more needed to be sent with medical supplies, including necessary surgical materials, and faced difficulties due to blocks on entering the country. Arjan Hehenkamp, the director of operations, said: "All information we receive points towards a critical situation in terms of medical care for the injured. We need to be working alongside Libyan health professionals to care for people who have been caught in the violent clashes over recent days. It is unacceptable that medical staff and supplies are kept away from people who need them."
Juventus was said to be concerned about a 7.5 percent stake in the company owned by the Libyan Arab Foreign Investment Company, otherwise known as Lafico. The shares in Juventus fell 2.3 percent to 84.8 euro on 25 February.
The London School of Economics came under fire for its links with Saif al-Islam Gaddafi. After he got a PhD in 2008 the Gaddafi International Charity and Development Foundation (GICDF) gave the school a gift of £1.5m the following year. A professor, David Held, who was a beneficiary of the gift was also appointed a trustee of GICDF before the gift was formally accepted. The LSE was also said to be investigation allegations of of plagiarism and said that the degree can be "revoked if there are substantiated concerns about the manner in which it was attained – for example if there is a later discovery of plagiarism."
Travel advisories and evacuations
Various states including Britain, the United States, Germany, Italy, France, Pakistan, the Netherlands, Turkey, Peru, China, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and Greece put into place arrangements for the evacuation of their citizens from the country on the 23rd. However evacuation appeared to be difficult due to "chaos" at the international airport in Tripoli as well as a "destroyed" runway at Benina International Airport and the temporary closure of all Libyan ports. Consequently, many international flights, including those of British Airways, were cancelled, although others appeared to operate. Further reports indicated that Libyan harbours in many cities were closed. To address that problem, many governments have sent civilian and military aircraft and ships to evacuate their citizens. TV coverage indicated that the airport in Malta had turned into a hub for various European rescue missions. Both Italy and Bulgaria joined China in warning against all travel to Libya while Spanish Foreign Minister Trinidad Jimenez said counterparts from around the 27-state EU were considering pulling people out, particularly from the eastern opposition stronghold of Benghazi.
Italy sent in an airlift to rescue its 1,500 residents in Libya on 22 February. The Netherlands said it wanted to evacuate 100 of its citizens and prepared an aircraft for the evacuation. It also sent the navy frigate Tromp to lend support by sea. The UK’s Royal Navy frigate HMS Cumberland was sent to international waters near Libya to help with the evacuation if necessary.
Greece, Germany, Austria, Portugal and other EU nations planned or conducted airlifts. A Spanish military plane was already on standby on 22 February. On 23 February both Portugal and Austria sent military planes to Tripoli to evacuate their nationals and those of other EU countries as companies with major interests in the country including British energy giant BP and Italy's ENI and Finmeccanica were also preparing to repatriate their employees. Various states including Britain, Chile, the United States, Germany, Spain, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Germany, France, Austria, Italy, France, Serbia, the Netherlands, Turkey, Peru, India, China, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and Greece put into place arrangements for the evacuation of their citizens from the country on 23 February. The Brazilian Government deployed a ship from the Greek port of Piraeus on 23 February to fetch 180 of an estimated 600 of its nationals in Benghazi and transported them to Malta, from where they traveled to Brazil. Brazil then obtained permission from the Libyan government for five flights to land in Tripoli to rescue the remainder of its citizens. China was sending Greek ships to evacuate 15,000 of the 30,000 Chinese citizens in Libya. Canada had initially chartered a private aircraft to pickup Canadians and now have a Boeing C-17 Globemaster III from the No. 429 Squadron RCAF on standby in Germany to fly to Tripoli via Rome if and when needed.] The Governor General of Canada's plane (Bombardier Challenger 600 from No. 412 Squadron RCAF) is also in Rome (there for state visit) and is on standby as well.
India launched a multi-pronged sea and air rescue operation to evacuate its 18,000 nationals trapped in Libya. Two aircraft from Air India shuttled passengers from Libya to Delhi and Mumbai. A chartered passenger vessel will also shuttle Indian citizens from Libya to Egypt or Malta. The Indian Navy vessels INS Jalashwa, INS Aditya and INS Mysore are being deployed to the region. Two Indians also died during the protests.
On 27 February two RAF C-130 aircraft evacuated approximately 100 foreign nationals, mainly oil workers, to Malta from the desert south of Bengahzi.
By 28 February Turkey considered its evacuation complete, having brought over 17,000 nationals home. At the same time China had already evacuated nearly 29,000 nationals by land, sea and air, using both Crete and Malta as staging posts.
Various petroleum companies evacuated their expatriate employees. BP said that it was preparing to evacuate about 40 expatriate workers from Libya, where it has suspended onshore oil exploration due to the political unrest. Norway’s Statoil said it already has started pulling out a handful of international staff and has closed its Tripoli corporate office. Shell said it had completed a withdrawal of its staff on 22 February.Brazilian conglomerate Odebrecht said they were putting into place mandatory evacuations for the nearly 5,000 staff they have in Libya.
Other oil companies also withdrew their employees to ensure their safety, including: Gazprom, Shell, Suncor, Pertamina and BP. Other companies that decided to evacuate their employees include Siemens and Russian Railways.
About 15 Danes who were in Libya working for FLSmidth left on 24 February.
A crowd of about 250 Libyans called on the ambassador to Malta, Saadun Suayeh, to resign and for the Libyan embassy to replace the current Libyan flag with the older Libyan monarchy flag. Suayeh said he would not give in to demands. He stated that Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi "should not go", adding "His (Gaddafi's) presence for the time being is definitely a guarantee for the country's unity,".
It was claimed that Libyans in Malta are being offered as much as €500 each to demonstrate in favour of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. One Libyan man turned up to back Col Gaddafi but was ushered away from the embassy as anti-government protesters gathered. Portraits of the Libyan leader were set on fire, while other protesters took off their shoes and used them to hit pictures of Gaddafi.
About 200 protesters gathered outside the consulate in Istanbul in support of the protesters.
In Albert Square, Manchester in the United Kingdom, over 100 people demonstrated in support of the protesters. In London, protesters gathered outside the embassy. One man scaled the building unchallenged and removed the Libyan flag and replaced it with the flag of the Kingdom of Libya.
Date City Country Notes
17 February Alexandria Egypt
17 February London UK
19 February Geneva Switzerland
19 February Washington, DC US
19 February Atlanta, GA US
19 February Kansas City, MO US
20 February Toronto, ON Canada
20 February Alexandria Egypt
20 February Portland, OR US
21 February Edmonton Canada
21 February Cairo Egypt
21 February Marseilles France
21 February Valletta Malta
21 February London UK
21 February Manchester UK
21 February Lansing, MI US
21 February Seattle, WA US
22 February Melbourne Australia
22 February Brandon, MB Canada
22 February Ottawa, ON Canada
22 February Montreal, QC Canada
22 February Paris France
22 February Gaza City Palestine
22 February Berlin Germany
22 February Amman Jordan
22 February Kuala Lumpur Malaysia
22 February Tunis Tunisia
22 February Istanbul Turkey
22 February Sacramento, CA US
22 February Orlando, FL US
22 February Pullman, WA US
23 February Sydney Australia
23 February Wellington New Zealand
23 February Cairo Egypt
23 February Athens Greece
23 February Dublin Ireland
23 February Rome Italy Protesters said they would stay there till Gadaffi leaves.
23 February Tokyo Japan
23 February Beirut Lebanon
23 February Edinburgh UK
23 February London UK
23 February Denver, CO US
23 February Columbia, MO US
24 February Detriot, MI US
25 February New York City, NY US
26 February Valletta Malta
26 February San Francisco, CA US
26 February Glasgow UK Stop the War said that: "It is very important that people here show their support for the protesters. Let's mobilise and unite in our thousands to send the message that we stand in solidarity with those struggling for a better world."
26 February Chicago, IL US
Regional financial stock-market indices fell on 20 February on concern of spreading instability. Global stock markets fell the next day. On 22 February, crude oil and bonds climbed while Asian stocks fell on concern for stability in OPEC-member state Libya. US stock-market futures also dropped on the first working day following the aerial bombardments of protesters.
On 27 February, Saudi Arabia's Tadawul stock market index fell to a six-month low along with other regional Arab markets due to the clashes in Libya that caused a price increase in oil and amid fears that a recovery from the global economic crisis would slow. The following day Asian stock also declined because of the unrest.
Libya's state television made no mention of the anti-government protests in the eastern provinces of the country, and continued with its usual programming until 17 February. During the morning news bulletin on 16 February, state TV repeatedly showed demonstrations in support of Colonel Gaddafi, which were about 200 to 300 strong and allegedly "from across the country". At one point a crowd could be heard chanting anti-Al Jazeera slogans. The Qatar-based outlet channel had started broadcasting footage from a pro-Gaddafi demonstration live from Sirte, Gaddafi's home town, that numbered 1,000. State TV also showed live coverage of a speech by Gaddafi from the previous evening, in which he denounced both the United States and their alleged "Zionist" allies in front of a cheering crowd on 16 February. It also began broadcasting images of burning buildings and cars in what viewers said was the first time government media had acknowledged the growing unrest in the east, which it suggested was spreading to the point that the government had no choice but to address it directly, possibly even with force of arms on the 20th. Gadhafi was shown with his supporters during a rally in Nalut on 19 February.
Libya's privately owned and London-based electronic newspaper al-Yawm, which reports favourably on Gaddafi's son, Sayf-al-Islam, was the only Libyan source of any kind to freely report on the anti-Gaddafi protests in both the cities of Benghazi and Al Bayda. The paper usually carries balanced, un-opinionated reporting published a total of 16 articles on the anti-Gaddafi regime protests, quoting allegedly tapped "trustworthy" sources in Benghazi and Al-Baydam, and carried no reports on the pro-Gaddafi demonstrations in Tripoli. 4 protesters were killed in Al-Baydam, the Al-Yawm paper said, as a crowd attempted to storm the Internal Security Building, set fire two cars and the burnt down headquarters of the local traffic police on the 16th.
According to the state-owned Al-Shams and Al-Jamahiriya newspapers, mobile phone users were sent a text message warning them against taking to the streets on 17 February as a result of "directives from the state security service", which is the body that monitors and controls the country's two mobile telecommunications networks. The front page of Al-Jamahiriya was dedicated to pro-Gaddafi demonstrations and his timely public appearance at the Ahly football Club in Tripoli the day before, while state-owned Al-Shams led exclusively with coverage of this event. It later added that additional security forces had been bussed in to "control" the situation and that they had "out-of-town" accents "and foreign agents".
Quryna, which had once been a part of Saif-al-Islam's Al-Ghad Media Corporation but was taken over by the state in 2010, carried an upbeat report about order being restored in Benghazi. One article reported on the families of "17 February 2006 martyrs" who met Gaddafi and condemned the protests.
Domestically, BBC News reported on 18 February, that the "leading pro-government newspaper", Al-Zahf Al-Akhdar, has adopted a seemingly uncompromising stance towards the protests, stating:
Any risk from these minuscule groups protesters - this people and the noble revolutionary power will violently and thunderously respond, ...
The people's power, the Jamahiriya system of rule, the revolution, and Colonel Gaddafi are all red lines and those who try to cross or come near these lines are suicidal and playing with fire.
State TV broadcast images of Colonel Gaddafi paying a brief visit to Tripoli's Green Square, early on 18 February, during which supporters chanted pro-government slogans. BBC News stated that "diplomats reported the use of heavy weapons in Benghazi," on 18 February. The government imposed a near-total news blackout, and foreign reporters are banned from the country, although at least one BBC reporter has ignored this and is broadcasting from opposition controlled Benghazi, as was Al Jazeera. The British newspaper, the Independent Online, reported on 20 February that at least one state-run newspaper, Al-Zahf Alakhdar, blamed the protests on Zionism.