Thursday, December 16, 2010

Zaynab bint Ali زينب بنت علي

Zaynab bint Ali (Arabic: زينب بنت علي‎ ) was the daughter of the Islamic caliph, Ali (Ali ibn Abu Talib), and granddaughter of Islamic prophet, Muhammad through his daughter Fatimah.
In Muslim views, she is a great figure of sacrifice and strength. In Iran, her birthday is recognized as Nurse's Day.

Early life

Zaynab was the third child of Ali and Fatimah. She was born in Medina on the 5th of Jumada al-awwal (although some traditions say she was born on the 1st of Sha'aban) (of the Islamic calendar). Zaynab was named by Muhammad just as with her two elder brothers, Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain. Zaynab means "the adornment of her father" as a reference to Imam Ali. Zaynab lost her mother when she was only three years old. She grew extremely close to her full brothers, the Imams Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali.


When Zaynab came of age, she was married to her cousin Abdullah ibn Ja'far, a nephew of Ali, in a simple ceremony. Although Zaynab's husband was a man of means, the couple is said to have lived a modest life. Much of their wealth was devoted to charity. Abdullah was sometimes called "the sea of munificence" or "the cloud of munificence".
The marriage of Zaynab did not diminish her strong attachment to her family. Ali also felt a great affection for his daughter and son-in-law and when he became caliph and moved the capital from Medina to Kufa, Zaynab and Abdullah joined him. Zaynab bore four sons - Ali, Aun ibn Abdullah, Mohammad ibn Abdullah, and Abbas - and one daughter, Umm Kulthum.

Zaynab and Karbala
Zainab tekari (Place from where Zaynab saw battle of martyred Husain), Karbala,
At the death of the Muawiyah I, Husayn was forced out of Mecca due to the assassins that were sent by Muawiyah's son Yazid I to kill Husayn during pilgrimage, thus, Husayn went to Kufa by the invitation of the people of Kufa for him to claim the leadership of the Muslim community. Zaynab accompanied him, as did most of his household. After Husayn and all his 72 companions were brutally killed at the Battle of Karbala by the order of Yazid, Zaynab was taken hostage by the army of Yazid, Muawiyah's son and successor. Zaynab and the other survivors of Husayn's expedition, most of them women and children, were marched to Damascus, Yazid's capital, where they were held hostage. Tradition says that Zaynab, already in anguish due to the death of her brother Husayn and her sons Aun and Muhammad, was forced to march unveiled. This was an extreme indignity to inflict on a high-ranking Muslim woman, the granddaughter of Muhammad.
Zarih maulatena Zainab, Cairo,
Sayyidah Zaynab-ul-Kubra Mosque, Damascus,
Mosque-Mausoleum Zaynab,Cairo,
Eventually Yazid released his captives and allowed them to return to Medina. The anniversary of her death is said to be either the 11th or 21st of Jumada al-Thani, the 24th of Safar, or the 16th of Dhu al-Hijjah. Her grave can be found within Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque in Damascus, Syria. There is a different view, with many Sunnis holding her grave can be found within at a different mosque, also titled "Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque", in Cairo.The Fatimid/Dawoodi Bohra also believe in same.Their 52nd Dai Mohammad Burhanuddin made zarih for the shrine,photo is place opposite. They further believe that the Mausoleum of Zaynab-al-Kubra in Damascus is of lady Umm Kulthum bint Ali younger daughter of Ali(may be confusion in 'Sugra' & 'Kubra') and the mausoleum of elder daughter of Ali the Zaynab bint Ali is in Cairo. There is history of Zaynab leaving in Cairo in her last days.

Zaynab and History of her last days

Some of the history related with Zaynab's last days are quoted here from news/web sources ,which reveals that Zaynab died in Cairo and her shrine is also in Cairo:
"Yazid .. ordered . dispersion of Ahl Al Bayt ... The governor . Medina asked Zainab to leave .city .. She chose Egypt, and arrived .. in Sha’aban of 61 H. . was received by the governor, Mouslima Ben Makhled Al Ansari, and by a mass of Muslims, .. to Al Fastat (the capital of Egypt ..).
Mouslima invited her .. at his place.. She remained in her residence almost a year (11 months and 10 days) without leaving until her death, on Sunday 14 Rajab 62 H/March 27th, 682 A. D, in a place called “Al Hamrae Al Qoswa”, .. where the mausoleum of Zainab is currently located. It became a large mosque .. renamed “the district of Sayeeda Zainab”.
Historical evidence... Rokaya Bent Oqba Ben Nafi’ AlFihri said: “I was one of .. who welcomed Zainab ., when she came to Egypt after .. Kerbala. Mouslima Ben Makhled, Abdullah Ben El Hareth and Abu Amira Al Mazini .. welcome her. Mouslima presented his condolences to her …".(Yasin/52).
In the books “Mashariq Al Anwar” and “Tabaqat Asha’arani”, .. indications of her arrival in Egypt. Hafed Ben Asaker Addimashqi, the 6th century of Hegira historian, mentioned her arrival in Egypt in his .. book, .. in the Al Khalidiay Library in Damascus. This event .. mentioned by the historian Ibn Toloun Addimashqi, in a separate book. Among the contemporaries is Dr. Ahmed Asharbassi, ... mentioned her arrival in one of his books.
One also finds in Aleppo a book by Abdalli (Al Hassan Ben Yahya), descendant of Ali Ben Abi Taleb, born in 194 H in Al Aqiq in Hijaz. The book is .. “Akhbar Azainabiyate” (Information on Zainabs), and mentions .. Ahl Al Bayt bearing .. Zainab. It indicates .. .. Zainab left Medina .. settled in Egypt. . gave the same date and length of stay as ... in this blog.

In 1170 the Emir Abdul Rahman Katekhda H/1768 A. D. restored the gallery and put a copper plate on the door with the inscription: “O Sayeeda Zainab, O daughter of Fatema Azzahra, give me strength”. It is still there."
Sayyida Ruqayya and Sayyida Nafisa along with Sayyida Zaynab are from Ahl al-Bayt and traditionally considered the patron saints of the Cairo city. The subsequent section describe about them also.

Sayyida Ruqayya
central mihrab, Sayyeda Ruqayya Mashhad, Cairo

Sayyida Ruqayya was the daughter of Ali, who married the Prophet's daughter, Fatima.
Zarih Sayyeda Ruqayya, Cairo,
The mashhad is noted among other things for its central mihrab, one of the greatest pieces of stucco decoration in Egypt. It comprises a niche surmounted by a shell which is in turn surrounded by an outer scalloped edge, the ribs of which radiate from a medallion in a fashion recalling the niches decorating the facade of the al-Aqmar Mosque.These depict Fatimid Caliphate history of Egypt.
Masjid having Nafisa Mausoleum side by,Cairo
Sayyida Nafisa

Sayyida Nafisa bint Hasan along with Sayyida Zaynab are traditionally considered the patron saints of the Cairo city.She is woman from Ahl al-Bayt family.She was the daughter of al-Hasan al-Anwar, the son of Zaid al-Ablaj, son of Imam Hasan, brother of Imam Husayn, son of the Daughter of the Prophet Sayyida Fatimat al-Zahra.


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